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Feminism Friday! - ppt download

Feminism Friday! - ppt download

Loading in 2 Seconds... Women, Poverty and Social Citizenship in the United States. Women's Leadership Conference: Making Connections on Shared Priorities October 2012. Celia Winkler, J.D., Ph.D. Associate Professor, Dept. of Sociology The University of Montana [email protected] Social Citizenship.Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.Women's Leadership Conference:Making Connections on Shared Priorities October 2012 Celia Winkler, J.D., Ph.D. Associate Professor, Dept. of Sociology The University of Montana [email protected] T.H. Marshall (1893-1981) British sociologist Social Citizenship: “status bestowed on all those who are full members of a community.” Social Citizenship: “status bestowed on all those who are full members of a community.” Civil Rights: right to participate in civil society (negative) Freedom from assaults on physical and mental integrity Freedom from discrimination Political Rights: right to participate in polity Vote Speech Freedom from assaults on physical and mental integrity Freedom from discrimination Political Rights: right to participate in polity Freedom from discrimination Vote Speech Speech Social Rights: right to share in the “social heritage” (positive) Generally speaking, the resources necessary for physical and mental health “live the life of a civilized being according to the standards prevailing in society” Interdependency of Rights Each set of rights is dependent on the others Without political or civil rights, cannot gain social rights Without social rights, cannot exercise civil or political rights Generally speaking, the resources necessary for physical and mental health “live the life of a civilized being according to the standards prevailing in society” Interdependency of Rights “live the life of a civilized being according to the standards prevailing in society” Each set of rights is dependent on the others Without political or civil rights, cannot gain social rights Without social rights, cannot exercise civil or political rights Without political or civil rights, cannot gain social rights Without social rights, cannot exercise civil or political rights Civil Rights: Right to own property; testify in court Right to divorce Right to control reproduction/family planning Political Rights: Women’s suffrage Bringing issues of care into the public debate Social Rights: Supporting care work and reproductive choice Right to own property; testify in court Right to divorce Right to control reproduction/family planning Political Rights: Right to divorce Right to control reproduction/family planning Women’s suffrage Bringing issues of care into the public debate Social Rights: Bringing issues of care into the public debate Supporting care work and reproductive choice Issues: Women as workers (civil rights) Women as political actors (political rights) Women as caregivers (social rights) Time periods: Progressive Era (1900-1920s) Great Depression/New Deal (1930s) Post WWII (1940s-1960s) Civil Rights Era (1960s-1970s) Rise of Neoliberalism (1980s-1990s) Rise of Neoconservatism (1990s-present) Women as workers (civil rights) Women as political actors (political rights) Women as caregivers (social rights) Time periods: Women as political actors (political rights) Women as caregivers (social rights) Progressive Era (1900-1920s) Great Depression/New Deal (1930s) Post WWII (1940s-1960s) Civil Rights Era (1960s-1970s) Rise of Neoliberalism (1980s-1990s) Rise of Neoconservatism (1990s-present) Great Depression/New Deal (1930s) Post WWII (1940s-1960s) Civil Rights Era (1960s-1970s) Rise of Neoliberalism (1980s-1990s) Rise of Neoconservatism (1990s-present) 1900-1920s: First Wave of Feminism Question: Equality or Difference? Protective Legislation Mothers’ Aid Women’s Suffrage Legal to pay women and children less than men Normal work day 12 hours Families needed child wage Unsafe working conditions Few childcare options Birth control information illegal Women and most racial minorities barred from vote Normal work day 12 hours Families needed child wage Unsafe working conditions Few childcare options Birth control information illegal Women and most racial minorities barred from vote Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire 1911 Protective legislation State limits on women’s work hours upheld State limits on child labor upheld Federal limits on child labor struck down Minimum wage laws struck down Scattered attempts to provide childcare Labor unions not protected by law Mothers Aid: limited assistance to “worthy” mothers, administered by charitable organizations Women’s Suffrage gained by constitutional amendment 1920 State limits on women’s work hours upheld State limits on child labor upheld Federal limits on child labor struck down Minimum wage laws struck down Scattered attempts to provide childcare State limits on child labor upheld Federal limits on child labor struck down Minimum wage laws struck down Labor unions not protected by law Mothers Aid: limited assistance to “worthy” mothers, administered by charitable organizations Women’s Suffrage gained by constitutional amendment 1920 1930s: The New Deal Issues: High unemployment Gendered solutions Racial/ethnic discrimination The Great Depression— Social Issues Unemployment increases: at its height, about 25% Homelessness, poverty increase Unrest increases--fear of Bolshevik type revolution Solutions for male unemployment Civilian Conservation Corp Civilian Conservation Corp Solution primarily for male unemployment Work Projects Administration Work Projects Administration 1935 Established right of private sector workers to organize, bargain collectively with employers, and strike Established National Labor Relations Board Promulgate rules Investigate and adjudicate charges of unfair labor practices Conduct elections Established right of private sector workers to organize, bargain collectively with employers, and strike Established National Labor Relations Board Promulgate rules Investigate and adjudicate charges of unfair labor practices Conduct elections Investigate and adjudicate charges of unfair labor practices Conduct elections Old Age Pensions and lump sum death benefits Provide security Remove elderly from labor market Unemployment compensation Provide security Raise wages Aid to Dependent Children Intended as temporary program For children supported by lone mothers (preferably widows) Provide security Remove elderly from labor market Unemployment compensation Remove elderly from labor market Provide security Raise wages Aid to Dependent Children Raise wages Intended as temporary program For children supported by lone mothers (preferably widows) For children supported by lone mothers (preferably widows) Work week: pay overtime for work over 40 hours Minimum wage: for everyone Child Labor Upheld in U.S. v. Darby Lumber Co. (1941) Minimum wage: for everyone Child Labor Upheld in U.S. v. Darby Lumber Co. (1941) Race discrimination Excluded as the price of Southern support: predominantly Black, Asian and Latino farmworkers and domestic workers Gender expectations Unemployment compensation, Social Security intended for male breadwinners ADC intended for women and children not supported by male breadwinner Male track: based on employment Female track: characterized by dependency, intrusive Excluded as the price of Southern support: predominantly Black, Asian and Latino farmworkers and domestic workers Gender expectations predominantly Black, Asian and Latino farmworkers and domestic workers Unemployment compensation, Social Security intended for male breadwinners ADC intended for women and children not supported by male breadwinner Male track: based on employment Female track: characterized by dependency, intrusive ADC intended for women and children not supported by male breadwinner Male track: based on employment Female track: characterized by dependency, intrusive GI Bill Housewife Era Problem: returning unemployed GIs Solution: Educational Grants, Housing Loans Keynesian Economics: Reduced interest rates Government infrastructure investment Creates demand Demand drives production Production provides jobs/income Jobs/income drives production Solution: Educational Grants, Housing Loans Keynesian Economics: Reduced interest rates Government infrastructure investment Creates demand Demand drives production Production provides jobs/income Jobs/income drives production Government infrastructure investment Creates demand Demand drives production Production provides jobs/income Jobs/income drives production Demand drives production Production provides jobs/income Jobs/income drives production Educational grants Removes pressure from labor market Intellectual infrastructure development Schools, academic staff, support for students Provides educated workforce Housing Loans Provided much needed housing Provided infrastructure development; jobs Removes pressure from labor market Intellectual infrastructure development Schools, academic staff, support for students Provides educated workforce Housing Loans Intellectual infrastructure development Schools, academic staff, support for students Provides educated workforce Provided much needed housing Provided infrastructure development; jobs Provided infrastructure development; jobs Male dominated only about 18% of female GIs took advantage of their GI Bill education eligibility Discrimination and lack of childcare White dominated Discrimination within armed forces Education: segregated schools Threats of violence Poverty of families Housing : legal discrimination by lenders and communities Only for GIs—“selectivity” only about 18% of female GIs took advantage of their GI Bill education eligibility Discrimination and lack of childcare White dominated Discrimination and lack of childcare Discrimination within armed forces Education: segregated schools Threats of violence Poverty of families Housing : legal discrimination by lenders and communities Only for GIs—“selectivity” Education: segregated schools Threats of violence Poverty of families Housing : legal discrimination by lenders and communities 1960s-1970s Civil Rights Legislation Supreme Court cases Vietnam War Liberation Movements Second Wave Feminism True compassion is more than flinging a coin to a beggar; it is not haphazard and superficial. It comes to see that an edifice which produces beggars needs restructuring. -- The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Welfare Rights and the War on Poverty is not haphazard and superficial. It comes to see that an edifice which produces beggars needs restructuring. Welfare Rights Movement linked to Civil Rights Movement Discrimination in local offices and by private agencies Racial discrimination Morality requirements (single mothers) Discrimination in local offices and by private agencies Racial discrimination Morality requirements (single mothers) Racial discrimination Morality requirements (single mothers) Morality requirements (single mothers) LBJ and the War on Poverty (1964-1968) Head Start (preschool for poor children) Legal Services Community Action advocacy offices Civil Rights Legislation Equal Pay Act of 1963 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Voting Rights Act of 1965 Head Start (preschool for poor children) Legal Services Community Action advocacy offices Civil Rights Legislation Legal Services Community Action advocacy offices Equal Pay Act of 1963 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Voting Rights Act of 1965 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Voting Rights Act of 1965 Establishes notion of “entitlement” Right to pretermination hearing : Goldberg v. Kelly Question: must one give up one’s constitutionally guaranteed rights in order to receive assistance? Rightto travel: Shapiro v. Thompson Right to privacy: Griswold v. Connecticut (1965); Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972) Roe v. Wade (1973) cf: Wyman v. James (1971) Right to pretermination hearing : Goldberg v. Kelly Question: must one give up one’s constitutionally guaranteed rights in order to receive assistance? Rightto travel: Shapiro v. Thompson Right to privacy: Griswold v. Connecticut (1965); Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972) Roe v. Wade (1973) cf: Wyman v. James (1971) Right to privacy: Griswold v. Connecticut (1965); Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972) Roe v. Wade (1973) cf: Wyman v. James (1971) Roe v. Wade (1973) cf: Wyman v. James (1971) 1980s-1990s “Reagan Revolution” The Decline of the Welfare State and Social Citizenship Free market End of “nanny state” “Truly Needy” Welfare Queens in Cadillacs End of “nanny state” “Truly Needy” Welfare Queens in Cadillacs Replaced work incentives (carrots) with sticks in AFDC Terminated thousands of “heads, hearts, backs” from Social Security Disability and Supplemental Security Income Eliminated food stamp eligibility for students, immigrants, strikers Terminated thousands of “heads, hearts, backs” from Social Security Disability and Supplemental Security Income Eliminated food stamp eligibility for students, immigrants, strikers Deregulation Housing market Financial institutions Health and safety Attacking labor unions Legislation and board composition Tighten eligibility for disability and parental benefits “Tough on Crime” Housing market Financial institutions Health and safety Attacking labor unions Financial institutions Health and safety Legislation and board composition Tighten eligibility for disability and parental benefits “Tough on Crime” Backlash against feminism Second wave feminism loses its voice Backlash against racial/ethnic liberation movements “Moral panics” Child abuse Crime Second wave feminism loses its voice Backlash against racial/ethnic liberation movements “Moral panics” Child abuse Crime Crime Increased poverty rate Increased inequality Increased homelessness “gentrification”—reduced housing stock Disabled individuals Families Increased incarceration Increased dichotomization between legitimate and illegitimate dependency Increased “personal responsibility” for care of family members Increased inequality Increased homelessness “gentrification”—reduced housing stock Disabled individuals Families Increased incarceration Disabled individuals Families Increased dichotomization between legitimate and illegitimate dependency Increased “personal responsibility” for care of family members 1990s-2000s “Ending Welfare as We know It” “Personal Responsibility” Third Wave Feminism Contract With America 1994: Personal Responsibility Act Punish illegitimacy Personal Responsibility and Work OpportunityReconciliation Act of 1996 Enforce work; encourage marriage Eliminate notion of “entitlement” Personal Responsibility Act Punish illegitimacy Personal Responsibility and Work OpportunityReconciliation Act of 1996 Enforce work; encourage marriage Eliminate notion of “entitlement” Eliminate notion of “entitlement” Cumulative Change in Real After-Tax Average Income is not haphazard and superficial. It comes to see that an edifice which produces beggars needs restructuring. Source: CBO http://www.cbo.gov/publications/collections/tax/2010/graphics.cfm Third Wave Feminism Antiwar Women’s care work disappears as legitimate issue of discussion Antiwar Women’s care work disappears as legitimate issue of discussion Blame the poor 99%/Occupy Movements Conservative backlash Economic Insecurity and the is not haphazard and superficial. It comes to see that an edifice which produces beggars needs restructuring. Great Recession findings from the economic security index November 2011 Women and Men Living on the Edge: Economic Insecurity After the Great Recessionby Jeff Hayes, Ph.D., Heidi Hartmann, Ph.D. (September 2011) For SlideServe users



Hokusai, full name Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), Japanese painter and wood engraver, born in Edo (now Tokyo). He is considered one of the outstanding figures of the Ukiyo-e, or "pictures of the floating world" (everyday life), school of printmaking. Hokusai entered the studio of his countryman Katsukawa Shunsho in 1775 and there learned the new, popular technique of woodcut printmaking. Between 1796 and 1802 he produced a vast number of book illustrations and color prints, perhaps as many as 30,000, that drew their inspiration from the traditions, legends, and lives of the Japanese people. Hokusai's most typical wood-block prints, silkscreens, and landscape paintings were done between 1830 and 1840. The free curved lines characteristic of his style gradually developed into a series of spirals that imparted the utmost freedom and grace to his work, as in Raiden, the Spirit of Thunder. In his late works Hokusai used large, broken strokes and a method of coloring that imparted a more somber mood to his work, as in his massive Group of Workmen Building a Boat. Among his best-known works are the 13-volume sketchbook Hokusai manga (begun 1814) and the series of block prints known as the Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji (circa 1826-33). Hokusai is generally more appreciated in the West than in Japan. His prints, as well as those by other Japanese printmakers, were imported to Paris in the mid-19th century. They were enthusiastically collected, especially by such impressionist artists as Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, and Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, whose work was profoundly influenced by them. Photographs by Mark Harden and Carol Gerten-Jackson.





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