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Unit 11+first conditional

Unit 11+first conditional

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English verbs express three grammatical moods: indicative, imperative, and subjunctive. Grammatical mood is defined as a set of distinctive verb forms that express modality. Modality is the grammaticalized expression of the subjective attitude of the speaker, which includes opinions about possibility, probability, necessity, obligation, permissibility, ability, desire, and contingency. In the English language, the subjunctive mood expresses commands, doubts, guesses, hypotheses, purposes, requests, suggestions, and wishes that are contrary to fact at the time of the utterance.Formation of the Subjunctive MoodThe English language differs from many other Indo-European languages in that subjunctive forms of English verbs closely resemble the corresponding forms of the indicative mood. The English subjunctive is distinguishable in form only from the indicative in the third person singular present tense forms and in forms that require the verb be as the initial auxiliary verb of the verb phrase.The verb phrase patterns for the subjunctive mood in the active voice are as follows:The verb phrase patterns for the subjunctive mood in the passive voice are as follows:The conjugations of the verb be in the subjunctive mood and active voice are as follows:As a copular verb, be lacks passive forms. Only transitive verbs, which are verbs that take objects, and verbs with verb phrase complements may be conjugated into the passive voiceThe following chart outlines the verb phrase patterns for the subjunctive mood:The following chart provides examples of the subjunctive mood for regular verbs, irregular verbs, and the anomalous verb be. The verbs highlighted in blue different completely from the forms of the indicative mood, and the verbs highlighted in green differ from the forms of the indicative mood only in the third person singular. The verbs not highlighted are identical in form in the subjunctive and indicative moods. The copular verb be as well as other copular verbs and some intransitive verbs (usually without verb phrase complements) lack subjunctive passive forms.For example:   *Although grammatically correct, certain forms of the subjunctive are rarely used in contemporary English.Negating Subjunctive Verb PhrasesThe negation of the subjunctive mood further differs from the negation of the indicative mood. Negation is the grammatical operation whereby a proposition is replaced by one that states the opposite. An affirmative form expresses the validity or truth of a basic assertion. A negative form expresses the falsity of a basic assertion.To negate a simple form in the indicative mood, insert the operator do and the negative adverb not before the verb. For example:To negate a simple form in the subjunctive mood, however, simply insert the negative adverb not before the verb. For example:Use of the Subjunctive MoodThe subjunctive mood most often appears in if-clauses and following certain verbs and phrases that express possibility, necessity, and contingency. Unlike the indicative mood, the subjunctive mood almost always appears in a subordinate clause. Also referred to as dependent clauses, subordinate clauses are grammatical structures that consist of a subordinating conjunction followed by a subject and a predicate but that cannot function independently as complete sentences.If­-clauses are the first type of subordinate clause in which the subjunctive mood appears. An if-clause is a subordinate clause that begins with the subordinating conjunction if. The subjunctive mood in English most frequently appears in adverb if-clauses because such if-clauses always express possibility, necessity, and contingency. For example:However, not all if-clauses contain subjunctive forms. Noun if-clauses some adverb if­-clauses contain indicative forms. For example:The main difference between subjunctive if-clauses and indicative if-clauses is that the subject and verb may invert in subjunctive if-clauses. For example: In addition to appearing in if-clauses, the subjunctive mood also follows certain verbs and phrases that express possibility, necessity, and contingency. For example, some of the most common verbs that take the subjunctive mood in the noun clause that follows the verb include the following:Some of the most common English phrases that also take the subjunctive mood in the noun clause that follows the phrase include:Decline of the Subjunctive in Modern EnglishUnlike in other many other modern Indo-European languages, modern English is quickly losing distinct verb forms in the subjunctive mood. For example, consider the following English song lyrics:In the first two examples, Beyoncé and Johnny Cash use the subjunctive form of the verb be in the if-clauses If I were a boy, If I were a carpenter, and if you were a lady. In the second two examples, Gwen Stefani and Young Rebel Set use the indicative form of the verb be in the if-clauses If I was a rich girl, if I was a wealthy girl, and If I was a sailor. However, in all four cases, the if-clauses express contingency regardless of the form of the verb. Modern English speakers often use indicative forms with subjunctive meanings within if-clauses and especially with the verb be within if-clauses.Modern English speakers similarly use other indicative forms to express the subjunctive mood. For example, consider the following sentences:In all four examples, the that-clauses express subjunctivity. In the first and third sentences, the verbs wash and arrive take subjunctive forms. In the second and fourth sentences, the verbs take indicative forms but still express subjunctive meanings. The decline of the subjunctive in English is even more apparent and inevitable when considering the fact that about half of the subjunctive forms are already identical to the indicative forms. The subjunctive had been walking is indistinguishable in form from the indicative had been walking. In fact, the use of subjunctive forms is only required in the most formal registers of English usage. Language change is inevitable, and all distinct subjunctive forms may soon disappear from the English language.The subjunctive mood of English verbs expresses commands, doubts, guesses, hypotheses, purposes, requests, suggestions, and wishes that are contrary to fact at the time of the utterance. Verbs conjugated into the subjunctive are distinguishable in form only from the indicative in the third person singular present tense forms and in forms that require the verb be as the initial auxiliary verb of the verb phrase.ReferencesBrinton, Laurel J. & Donna M. Brinton. 2010. The linguistic structure of Modern English, 2nd edn. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Hopper, Paul J. 1999. A short course in grammar. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. Huddleston, Rodney. 1984. Introduction to the grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Auxiliary verbs are a subcategory of English verbs that provide additional semantic or syntactic information about the main verb in the...Verbs are traditionally defined as “words that describe actions or states of being.” Main or principal English verbs may be either...Traditional notional grammars define verbs as “action or state of being words.” Transitive verbs in English grammar are main verbs that...Verbs have traditionally been defined as “action or state of being words.” Main verbs, or principal verbs, fall into five categories...Notional grammars describe verbs as “action or state of being words.” Main verbs, or principal verbs, fall into five categories in...Verbs have traditionally been defined as “action or state of being words.” Main verbs, or principal verbs, fall into five categories...Traditional grammars define verbs as “action or state of being words.” Main verbs, or principal verbs, fall into five categories in...Notional grammars define verbs as “action or state of being words.” Main verbs, or principal verbs, fall into five categories in...A verb phrase is a phrase in which a verb functions as the head of the phrase plus any auxiliaries (modals,...Copyright © 2015 Linguistics Girl





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