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Descarga Gratis el Libro Economia de Larroulet y Mochon

Descarga Gratis el Libro Economia de Larroulet y Mochon

ysis Manual Product version 15.0 January 2009 © 2009 Tekla Corporation © 2009 Tekla Corporation and its licensors. All rights reserved. This Software Manual has been developed for use with the referenced Software. Use of the Software, and use of this Software Manual are governed by a License Agreement. Among other provisions, the License Agreement sets certain warranties for the Software and this Manual, disclaims other warranties, limits recoverable damages, defines permitted uses of the Software, and determines whether you are an authorized user of the Software. All information set forth in this manual is provided with the warranty set forth in the License Agreement. Please refer to the License Agreement for important obligations and applicable limitations and restrictions on your rights. Tekla does not guarantee that the text is free of technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. 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Contents Preface ...............................................................................................................7 Audience ............................................................................................................................................................. 7 Additional help resources .................................................................................................................................... 7 Conventions used in this guide ........................................................................................................................... 8 Related guides .................................................................................................................................................... 9 1 Getting Started with ysis................................................................. 11 1.1 Basics ................................................................................................................................................... 11 Following through structural ysis ............................................................................................... 13 Members, elements, and nodes....................................................................................................... 13 1.2 Determining member properties ........................................................................................................... 14 Member ysis type ...................................................................................................................... Member axis location ....................................................................................................................... ysis member offsets .................................................................................................................. ysis properties of plates ............................................................................................................ Spanning ................................................................................................................................... Loading ...................................................................................................................................... ysis offsets of plates ........................................................................................................... ysis properties of components .................................................................................................. ysis properties of slab components........................................................................................... yzing composite beams ............................................................................................................ Viewing ysis results ............................................................................................................ Manual method - limitations ...................................................................................................... Support conditions ........................................................................................................................... Defining support conditions.............................................................................................................. Design information ........................................................................................................................... Properties of intermediate members ................................................................................................ Defining buckling lengths (columns) ................................................................................................ Effective buckling length ............................................................................................................ Kmode options .......................................................................................................................... 1.3 16 17 18 18 20 20 21 22 23 24 25 25 25 26 27 28 29 29 30 Fine-tuning ysis models ................................................................................................................. 31 Adding intermediate nodes .............................................................................................................. 34 Using rigid links ................................................................................................................................ 35 1.4 ysis information and settings ......................................................................................................... 37 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 3 ........ ysis method ........................ 67 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ................................................. Modifying load distribution.................................... 2............................................. 2.................................................................. Load modeling code .................................................A closer look at the ysis model ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Nodes connecting members and elements ....................................................................................................................................................... Checking loads and load groups ........................................................................................................................................................................................ Loads in ysis........................................................................................................1 2.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 53 Changing loaded length or area ................................................... Create Point Load ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Changing the load group .........................4 Attaching loads to parts or locations ................................ 41 2........ Load group compatibility ...........5 43 43 44 45 45 45 46 48 49 49 50 50 52 52 Load types and properties............................ 41 Automatic loads and load groups ....................................................................................................................................... Create Uniform Load ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Load magnitude................................................................................................................ Loaded length or area ............................................ Working with load groups ...................................................................................................................................... 49 Working with loads..........................................................................................................................................................................2 Basics................................................................................................ 37 38 38 39 39 40 2 Loads...... Importing and exporting load groups ....................... Create Temperature Load .......................................... 42 Grouping loads........................................................................................................................... Applying loads to parts .............................................................. Create Area Load ...........................6 Load reference........................................................................................ ............................................. Objects ............................................................................................................................... 42 Load group properties ................................................................................. Temperature loads and strain ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Create Wind Load ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 45 Distributing loads.......................................................................................................... 2..................................................................................................................................... 54 Scaling loads in model views ................................ Create Line Load.................................................................................................................... 56 Load Groups................................. Load forms .......................................3 Load types................................. 54 Defining varying wind loads........................................................................................................... 55 2.................................................................................................... 56 58 59 60 61 62 63 3 4 ysis and Design ...........................................1 ysis model geometry............................................................................................. ysis part properties....................................................................................................... 68 70 70 71 72 76 77 77 78 78 79 80 80 81 82 82 82 83 84 84 86 87 88 88 90 90 90 93 93 94 3............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Manual load combination ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 ysis model properties...................................................................................................................................................... Modal ysis ................................................................................. Defining nodes ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Showing ysis models and support conditions in model views ........ ... ysis model status ................................................................................................................................................................. 89 Checking objects contained in an ysis model................................................................................................. 74 Objects in an ysis model ................4 Working with ysis and design models ............................................. Connecting or disconnecting parts in ysis ....... 94 ysis > ysis & Design Models.. 100 Load combinations.................................................................... 3.......... 100 Get results................................................................................................................................ 67 Creating rules to define ysis model geometry ........... 95 New.................. Automatic load combination ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 97 Add selected objects ......... Contents of STAAD............................ Automatically including loads in combinations ...................................................................................................................................................... Viewing ysis results ...........................................................................................................................................................................5 ysis and design reference................................. Model merging with ysis applications ......................3 Load combination ........................Pro results files and reports ....................................... ysis method............................................. 3........................................................................................................................................... Creating load combinations.. 83 Load combination properties....................... Seismic ysis................................................................ Design codes and methods......................................................... Defining ysis connections of parts................................................................................... Member axis..................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................................3.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Running ysis...................................................................................................... 3................................................................................................. Load combination factors ..................................................................................................................................................... Design properties ................................................... 101 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 5 .................................................................................................................. 99 Remove selected objects ..... .............................................................. Member end connectivity ............................ Adding or removing ysis objects....................................................................................... Modifying ysis model geometry ................................................................... ysis model filter ............................................................................. Load combination types .......................................................................................................View ysis Parts.......................................................................... 102 Reset Geometry for Selected Parts................................................................................ 102 6 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ......................................... commands. yze. and features. 9) Audience This guide is aimed at structural engineers.Support. with plenty of examples. detailers and designers who model.CHI@Tekla. We assume that you are familiar with the processes of structural engineering. 7) Additional help resources (p.com Contact your local helpdesk via e-mail: Area office China Finland E-mail address TeklaStructures. and design concrete and steel structures. 8) Related guides (p.com TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 7 .FI@Tekla.tekla. 7) Conventions used in this guide (p. Additional help resources The following resources also provide information about Tekla Structures: Web site E-mail http://www.Preface Tekla Structures includes complete documentation in an accessible help system. Our online help is a detailed guide to Tekla Structures concepts. Topics in the Preface are: • • • • Audience (p.com TeklaStructures. tools. The documentation is also available in PDF format.Support.tekla.Support.com TeklaStructures. If you are not sure what a certain typeface represents. you can check it here. marked by different icons.IN@Tekla.US@Tekla. field and button names.Area office France Germany India Japan Malaysia Middle East Sweden UK US E-mail address TeklaStructures. software downloads. and list box items are displayed in this typeface. Conventions used in this guide Typefaces We use different typefaces for different items in this guide. Arial bold Italic bold Monospace Noteboxes We use several types of noteboxes. Convention Bold Usage Bold indicates the names of keyboard keys.Support.com TeklaStructures.com TeklaStructures.com. Extracts of Tekla Structures’s program code. You can also access Tekla Extranet from Tekla Structures by clicking Help > Online Support > Tekla Extranet. please report it to your Tekla Structures Reseller using the maintenance request form provided at Help > Tekla on the Web > Maintenance request.Support.com TeklaStructures. Their functions are shown below: 8 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 .MY@Tekla. or other material that you would normally edit in a text editor.com TeklaStructures.GER@Tekla. appears in monospaced font. HTML. To register. Register now to get free access to our online discussion forums.Support.. Also all the text you enter yourself appears in monospaced font.UK@Tekla.Support.com.Support.ME@Tekla. In most cases the meaning is obvious from the context.FR@Tekla. combo box options. Items such as window and dialog box titles.com TeklaStructures. Filenames and folder paths appear in monospace.JPN@Tekla. New terms are in italic bold when they appear in the current context for the first time..Support.SWE@Tekla. go to https://extranet. Bold is also used for general emphasis in text. Please send any comments or suggestions about Tekla Structures documentation to BetC_Documentation@tekla.com TeklaStructures.com TeklaStructures.Support. tutorials.com If you believe you have discovered a problem with this software. and more. hints & tips.Support. Tekla Extranet Anyone with a current maintenance contract can use Tekla Extranet. Any text that you see in the user interface appears in Arial bold..A tip might introduce a shortcut. They will help you avoid making serious mistakes. You should always read very important notes and warnings. System Manual Covers advanced features and how to maintain the Tekla Structures environment. It can also point you to other information in this guide that you might find useful. SymEd User’s Guide TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 9 . You will also receive a printed installation guide with your Tekla Structures installation DVD. You are never required to understand this kind of information. and details. connections. Drawing Manual How to create and edit drawings. ysis Manual How to create loads and run structural ysis. TplEd User’s Guide How to create and edit report and drawing templates. This symbol indicates advanced or highly technical information that is usually of interest only to advanced or technically-oriented readers. A note draws attention to details that you might easily overlook. or suggest alternative ways of doing things. A tip never contains information that is absolutely necessary. or wasting your time. Detailing Manual How to create reinforcement. • • • • • • • Modeling Manual How to create a physical model. like this one. Related guides Tekla Structures includes a comprehensive help system in a series of online books. 10 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 . • Installation Troubleshooting Guide Printed booklet explaining how to install Tekla Structures.How to use the SymEd graphical interface to manipulate symbols. 11) Determining member properties (p. This chapter is divided into the following sections: Audience Assumed background Contents • • • Basics (p. 37) 1. and how it is included. It includes a general description of the principles of ysis and design and discusses the theoretical basis of the ysis method used in Tekla Structures. The illustrations below show the ysis concepts and procedures. This chapter also explains what is included in the ysis model. This chapter is for engineers and designers who run structural ysis on concrete and steel structures. We assume that you have created parts.1 Getting Started with ysis Introduction This chapter explains how to prepare a Tekla Structures model for structural ysis and design. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis 11 . 14) ysis information and settings (p.1 Basics In this section This section presents the basic vocabulary and concepts we use to describe structural ysis in Tekla Structures. You will also learn how to define support conditions for parts. visit Tekla Extranet at https://extranet.Parts Loads Physical and load models Node Loads ysis member ysis model Physical model Load model A physical model includes the parts you have created using the Model Editor. see Loads (p. For more information on the ysis applications that you can use with Tekla Structures.com. You can also access Tekla Extranet from Tekla Structures at Help > Online Support > Tekla Extranet. 12 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis . and information related to them. Each part in the physical model exists in the completed structure. To create a load model.tekla. Tekla Structures links with a number of ysis applications and also supports import and export with them in several formats. Tekla Structures does the following in order to generate the ysis model: ysis model • • • • ysis application Creates nodes and ysis members and elements of the physical parts Determines the support conditions for nodes Determines the connectivity between the members and nodes Distributes loads to members and elements The ysis model also includes load combinations. 41). The load model contains information about loads and load groups. It also contains information about the building code Tekla Structures uses in load combination. Tekla Structures generates an ysis model of the physical and load models when you run structural ysis. The ysis application you use to run structural ysis uses data from the ysis model to generate ysis results. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis 13 . for example. There is no need to detail or create connections at this stage. make sure that connected parts have common reference points. and how it is included. Create the load model. (p. 13) Members. Create a new ysis model and define its properties.. See Parts. and nodes (p. 72) and View ysis Parts (p. 97). Set the support conditions for parts and connections. See Determining member properties (p. 3. 14). See Load combinations. See ysis part properties (p. including user-defined properties. They also explain what is included in the ysis model. 100). 90) and Checking objects contained in an ysis model (p. and nodes (p. 13) A closer look at the ysis model (p. Create the main load-bearing parts to form the physical model. as well as other ysis properties for individual members. See ysis model properties (p. 40) Members. elements.. Tekla Structures splits the part at the intersection points of the member axes. elements. Now you are ready to run the ysis. 74) and New.. A single physical part produces several members if the part intersects with other parts. Define the ysis geometry settings and modify the geometry if needed. 90). elements. 7. • • • • • Members. 41). and nodes Members Every physical part (beam or column) that you select to include in the ysis model produces one or more ysis members. 102). 39) Load modeling code (p. Create load combinations. 67) and Modifying ysis model geometry (p.Tekla Structures yzes parts using properties in the profile and material catalogs. 2. at grid line intersections. 5. Check the ysis model in a Tekla Structures model view. See ysis model geometry (p. 39) ysis method (p. See Loads (p. See also The following sections discuss the theoretical basis of the ysis method used in Tekla Structures. Topics Following through structural ysis (p. See Showing ysis models and support conditions in model views (p. (p. 6. Tekla Structures calculates them using the profile dimensions in the model. 37) Loads in ysis (p. 4. If there are no profile or ysis properties in the catalog.. 13) Following through structural ysis Before ysis Carry out the following steps before you run structural ysis in Tekla Structures: 1. Check the ysis parts and modify their properties if needed. To create accurate ysis models. 8. 70). see A closer look at the ysis model (p. This section describes the properties of the individual ysis members. and elements. use the ysis. or for an entire ysis model. Composite. neutral axis and orientation Part reference lines (see Part position) Location of member axes (see Member axis location (p. See also Determining member properties (p. 18)) Node definition method (p. 14 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis . members. End releases. and panels that you include in the ysis model into ysis elements. Because of this.e. create rigid links between nodes.Elements Nodes Tekla Structures splits the plates. Tekla Structures may need to merge nodes. Loading. For more information on where and how Tekla Structures creates nodes. ignore minor members. To define these. The methods used to create a physical model affect the ysis model. 77)) Location and shape of elements (see ysis properties of plates (p. 37). i. based on their ysis properties and the parts connected to them. etc. 78) To force members to meet in the ysis model.2 Determining member properties You can define ysis properties for individual parts. Tekla Structures creates nodes at: • • • • • • • • The ends of members The intersection points of member axes The corners of elements The following properties affect the exact location of nodes: Part profiles. or the ysis tab in the connection and detail dialog boxes. and Design tabs in the part properties dialog boxes. Start releases. you may need to try different modeling methods and ysis model properties in order to create an accurate ysis model of a complex physical model. 17) and Member axis (p. shift or extend member axes. 14) 1. Nodes connect ysis members and elements. slabs. 17) ysis member offsets (p. 23) yzing composite beams (p. 16) Member axis location (p. Topics Member ysis type (p. 31) TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis 15 . 18) ysis properties of components (p. For more information on using common properties for the parts in an ysis model. 27) Properties of intermediate members (p. 29) Fine-tuning ysis models (p. 26) Design information (p. 24) Support conditions (p. 28) Defining buckling lengths (columns) (p. see Fine-tuning ysis models (p. 74).Some ysis properties of parts are user-defined attributes. For more information. 25) Defining support conditions (p. 31). 18) ysis properties of plates (p. see ysis model properties (p. 22) ysis properties of slab components (p. Member can only take tensile axial forces. it is ignored in the ysis. The following table lists the options. Member can only take axial forces. The Color column lists these colors.Tension only Cyan Truss Compression only Yellow Rigid diaphragm Blue Shear wall For rectangular concrete panels and concrete slabs using design codes ACI and BS 8110 only. Option Default Description Member can take any type of load. except temperature. You can have Tekla Structures show the member ysis type of parts using different colors in the physical model. Color Light gray Beam Shell Member can take any load. Dark red Magenta Ignore Truss Red Green Truss . Use to yze slabs. Temperature load is available only for beam members. Only applies to contour plates and concrete slabs parallel to the global xy plane. Member can only take compressive axial forces. it is ignored in the ysis.Member ysis type Use the ysis tab in the part properties dialog boxes to define how Tekla Structures handles individual members in the ysis. not bending or torsion moments. Slabs and panels are modeled as shell elements. and braces are modeled as beam members. Usually used for brace members. Nodes that belong to a part matching the filter will be connected with rigid links which together affect displacement. membrane. If this member goes into tension. panels. Member ignored in the ysis. Columns. Gray Plate Membrane Mat foundation Same as Shell but plate. If this member goes into compression. Aqua Lime Pink 16 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis . including temperature. or shear forces. not moments or shear forces. Member can take any load. and plates. or mat foundation elements are used in the ysis application. not moments or shear forces. For example. Tekla Structures yzes the concrete panel or slab as a shear wall that does not take any direct loads. beams. you can use column_filter to connect only column nodes to rigid diaphragms. They also affect where Tekla Structures creates nodes. (p. The location of the member axis changes if the profile of the part changes. If you select the Neutral axis option. To have Tekla Structures indicate the member ysis type of parts in an object group using colors: 1. In the Color column. The part reference line is the member axis for this part. see A closer look at the ysis model (p.The ysis application that you use may not support all options. Click View > Representation > Object Representation.. Select the object group. Use the ysis tab in the part properties dialog boxes to define the member axis location of individual parts for ysis purposes.. 77). 4. For more information on object representation and object groups. 14) Member axis location The locations of the member axes of parts define where the ysis members actually meet.. The part reference line is the member axis for this part. Reference axis Reference axis (eccentricity by neutral axis) Tekla Structures uses the options above for each part when you select the Model default option for the member axis location in the ysis model properties. Click Modify. See also Determining member properties (p. 3. See Members. see Object representation settings and Object groups. select Color by ysis type. The location of the neutral axis defines axis eccentricity. 13) and A closer look at the ysis model (p. The options are: Option Neutral axis Description The neutral axis is the member axis for this part.. 97) and Member axis (p. elements. 2. See also Part position. If you select either of the Reference axis options. 37). For more information on members with the Truss. Tekla Structures takes the part location and end offsets into account when it creates nodes. 14) TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis 17 . and their length in the ysis model. Tension only.. Tekla Structures creates nodes at part reference points. and nodes (p. See also Determining member properties (p. See End offsets. 37). See New. or Compression only setting. The options are: Option Manual Description Works like end offsets for parts in the physical model. Spanning. instead of the distance between the center points of the columns. Automatic Dx Longitudinal member offset See also Determining member properties (p. To take the eccentricity of the load from the beam into account. and Loading tabs in the appropriate part properties dialog boxes to define how Tekla Structures creates ysis elements. Enter a positive or negative value in the Dx field. Another example is an eccentric connection between a precast concrete column and beam. Only applies to connection members and details. For example. use the ysis offsets of the beam. Use the ysis tab in the part properties or connection dialog boxes to define the offset at each end of a member. and concrete panels. 18 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis . Works like the Manual option and a value in the Dx field for parts.ysis member offsets Use offsets at the ends of ysis members to shorten or lengthen members in their local x directions. See also End offsets. The offset is the distance between the intersection of the parts’ neutral axes and the intersection of the edges of the parts. Use the ysis. Tekla Structures creates ysis elements for contour plates. 14) ysis properties of plates When creating an ysis model. you can use offsets to only include the clear distance in the ysis. concrete slabs. for ysis purposes and to take the eccentricity effects into account. if a beam only actually spans the clear distance between two supporting columns. For more information. The options are: • • • • • • Top plane Middle plane Bottom plane Left plane Right plane Middle plane (of left/right) The reference points of connected parts must also be in this plane. in the local x and y directions of the plate. 21) Design information (p. 20) ysis offsets of plates (p. Set to Shell to create elements in the ysis model. For triangular elements.The ysis properties of plates are: Property Type Plane Description See Member ysis type (p. 20) Loading (p. see Fine-tuning ysis models (p. 27) TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis 19 . Holes Some ysis properties of parts are user-defined attributes. Element size The approximate dimensions of the elements. The approximate dimensions of the elements around openings. the approximate dimensions of the bounding box around each element. 31). See also Spanning (p. The plane of the plate on which Tekla Structures creates the elements. 16). and will not carry the load from plate. The loading properties are: 20 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis . The spanning settings of the plate determine the spanning of the load. and then select the beam in the model that is parallel to the direction. The spanning setting of the load does not affect a load applied to a plate (see also Modifying load distribution (p. Primary axis direction Define the direction of the primary axis in one of the following ways: • • • Enter 1 in the axis field which is parallel to the primary axis direction. 52)). Loading The loading properties allow you to include concrete slabs as loads in the ysis model. Show direction on selected members A red line indicates the primary spanning direction of the plate carrying the load. and then select the beam in the model that is perpendicular to the direction. Click Parallel to part. Click Perpendicular to part.Spanning Use the plate spanning properties to define which parts carry loads from plates in slab-to-beam connections and wall-to-column connections: Property Spanning Description The options are: Single spanning plates carry loads in the direction of the primary axis. Beams or columns parallel to the spanning direction are not connected to the plate. Beams or columns in both directions will carry the load from plate. Double spanning plates carry loads along the primary and secondary axes. beams supporting the slab. 2. so is its self-weight. Use the ysis offsets tab in the part’s user-defined attributes dialog box. for example. as a load even if the part is not otherwise included in the ysis model. It includes Node offset fields for 12 corners. Click Tools > Inquire > Object and select the plate in the model to query its corner points. y. Part names Use continuous structure load distribution ysis offsets of plates You can define ysis offsets for individual corners of contour plates. Use to assign most of the load to the middle supports on continuous structures. If the part is included in the ysis model. Use this filter to ensure that area load from a slab is transferred to the correct parts. List boxes for additional loads Enter slab live load or additional self-weight (screed. or create an ysis model. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis 21 .Property Generate self weight load Description The ysis model includes the part weight. Typically you would enter the beam name as the filter value. The option No works only with the ysis types Ignore and Rigid diaphragm. To define ysis offsets for a plate: 1. concrete slabs. for example a deck. services) using three additional loads with load group name and magnitude. and concrete panels in the global x. and z directions. Run the ysis. The directions of these loads follow the direction of the load group to which they belong. button to open the attributes dialog box. Double-click the plate in the model to open its properties dialog box. ysis properties of components Use the ysis tab in the connection or detail dialog boxes to define how Tekla Structures handles connections and details in the ysis. and z offsets of each corner in the appropriate field. and z values with spaces. 4.. Click Modify. according to the index of the corner. y. The ysis properties of connections and details are: 22 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis .The Inquire Object dialog box opens. 5. On the ysis offsets tab. enter the x. y.. You can also modify ysis model geometry by moving ysis part handles. Use the current length units and separate the x. On the Attributes tab. 70). 6. See Modifying ysis model geometry (p. listing the corner indices and coordinates: 3. click the User-defined attributes. Tekla Structures overrides the profile of the part in the physical model. 1. See Member end connectivity (p. The option you select in the ysis type list box limits the other properties you can define (see the Only use for column). 14) ysis properties of slab components Use the ysis tab in the Slab generation with polygon plate (61) and Slab generation with points (62) dialog boxes to define the ysis properties of parts created using these components. 78). This means that in the ysis. 26). TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis 23 . instead of the ysis properties of the parts in the connection. See Support conditions (p. in order to take the stiffness of the connection or detail into account. secondary. Tekla Structures uses this profile in the ysis. secondary. 2. 25) and Defining support conditions (p. You must also select Yes in the Member end release method by connection list box in the ysis Model Properties dialog box when you create the ysis model. See ysis member offsets (p. for this length. etc.). instead of the one in the physical model. 18).Property Use ysis restraints Description Set to Yes to use the ysis properties of the connection or detail in the ysis. Restraint combination Support condition Longitudinal member offset ysis profile ysis profile length See also Determining member properties (p. Member selection Use to associate the ysis properties with each connection part (Primary. The following table lists the ysis properties of slab components. Open the Beam Properties dialog box and go to the Composite tab. Beam axis Restraints Plate plane The location of the beam axis. 24 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis . 16). For example. To define the properties of the concrete slab in a composite beam: 1. the approximate dimensions of the bounding box around each element. 17). Plate: yze each slab as a plate. Only use for • • • • Ignore: Slabs are not yzed. Filter Nodes that belong to a part matching the filter will be connected to the rigid diaphragm. Select a Material and enter the Thickness of the slab. The shape of the elements. See also Member ysis type (p. Rigid diaphragm: yze slabs as a rigid diaphragm. Beam: yze each slab as a beam. Rigid diaphragm yzing composite beams Composite beams consist of a beam and studs. The options are Pinned and Fixed. Holes: The approximate size of the Beam Beam Plate Element type Element size Plate Plate elements around openings. You can define the ysis properties of the slabs in composite beams. x and y: The approximate dimensions of the elements. Select the Composite beam option in the Composite beam list box. you can use column_filter to connect only column nodes to rigid diaphragms. in the local x and y direction of the slab. The support conditions of beam ends. with a concrete slab on top of the beam. and define the width of the slab manually or automatically. For triangular elements. If you select Top plane.Property ysis type Description How Tekla Structures yzes the slabs. See also Member axis location (p. 3. Tekla Structures creates the elements on the top surface of the slab. 2. The plane on which to create the elements and nodes. in relation to each other. 14) TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis 25 . These determine how ysis members move. other parts. right-click the beam and select Inquire on the pop-up menu. deform. connection.. Tekla Structures calculates the effective slab width by dividing the span length of the beam by the value you enter. half of span length divided by radio button and enter a value in the field next to these buttons. See also Defining support conditions (p. The ysis results include: • • • • • • • Element and node IDs Effective width Slab thickness Slab material Concrete strength Rib width and height Stud diameter and length Manual method . deflect. If the degree of connectivity is between free.4. The ysis properties of a member determine the degrees of freedom for each end of a main part or member. See also Viewing ysis results (p. See also Manual method . Use the Automatic composite beam option to have Tekla Structures calculate the slab width. use the Start releases and End releases tabs in the part properties dialog boxes. To define the member end conditions. warp.limitations (p. The displacement of a member end can be free or fixed. See also Part position. Automatic method: For the left and right side. or pinned. etc. Effective width cannot be more than half the distance to the nearest composite beam. 26) Determining member properties (p. 25). You normally use restraints or springs to model connections. the slab width is zero. or to nodes. Member ends and nodes have degrees of freedom (DOF) in three directions. use springs with different elastic constants to model them. When you run the ysis. The connection and detail dialog boxes have ysis tabs. The first end of a part has a yellow handle. If there is no beam on either side of the composite beam. select the Automatic. Support conditions In structural ysis. To define the effective slab width: • • Manual method: Select the To the left from the beam and/or To the right of the beam radio button and enter a value in the field next to these buttons. the second end has a magenta handle. the stresses and deflections of a part depend on how it is supported by. and the rotation can be pinned or fixed. 25) Viewing ysis results To view the ysis results for composite beams.limitations • • • Effective width cannot exceed the distance to the nearest beam. Tekla Structures uses part. and fixed. or connected to. or detail properties to determine how to connect members in the ysis model.Defining support conditions Parts Use the Start releases and End releases tabs in the part properties dialog boxes to define support conditions. The Start releases tab relates to the first part end (yellow handle), the End releases tab to the second part end (magenta handle). To define the support conditions of contour plates, concrete slabs, and concrete panels, use the Supported list box in the ysis Part Properties dialog box. Use the ysis tab in the connection or detail dialog boxes to define the support conditions for the members and node in a connection. Use the Member selection list box to associate the support conditions with each connection part (Primary, 1. secondary, 2. secondary, etc.). Tekla Structures includes four predefined combinations for member ends, and an option for user-defined settings. The predefined combinations (the first four in the following table) automatically set the appropriate support conditions and degrees of freedom. The combinations are: Plates Connections and details Support conditions Combinatio n Support condition Supported Translational DOFs Fixed Rotational DOFs Fixed Supported Fixed Pinned Connected Fixed Fixed Connected Fixed Pinned Use this option to define your own settings for the supports and connections at member ends. You can use springs and almost any combination of degrees of freedom. To ensure that the part remains stable, and that all loads applied to it pass through to the other structures, avoid using combinations with too many degrees of freedom. The support conditions of a member end can be: 26 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis Option Connected Description Member end is connected to an intermediate ysis node (another part). Indicate degrees of freedom for the node. Supported Member end is the ultimate support for a superstructure (for example, the foot of a column in a frame). Indicate degrees of freedom for the support. Displacements and rotations ’U’ denotes translational degrees of freedom (displacement). ’R’ denotes rotational degrees of freedom (rotation). Define the degrees of freedom in the global coordinate system. The options are: Option Free Pinned Fixed Spring More information Only applies to translational degrees of freedom. Only applies to rotational degrees of freedom. Enter translational and rotational spring constants. The units Tekla Structures uses depend on the program’s unit settings. Only applies to rotational degrees of freedom. Use to specify the degree of connectivity, if it is between fixed and pinned. Enter a value between 0 (fixed) and 1 (pinned). Partial release See also Support conditions (p. 25) Determining member properties (p. 14) ysis part properties (p. 72) Design information Use the Design tab in the part properties dialog boxes to view and modify the design properties of individual parts in an ysis model. Design properties are properties which can vary, according to the design code and the material of the main part (for example, design settings, factors, and limits). TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis 27 The properties you see when you first open the dialog box are the properties that apply to the entire ysis model you have selected in the ysis & Design Models dialog box. See also Design codes and methods (p. 82). To set different design properties for specific parts, modify the values in the appropriate part properties dialog box. For example, if the ysis model contains parts with different material grades, define the most common material grade using the ysis model properties. Then change the material grade of specific parts using the appropriate part properties dialog box. To omit individual members from the design check when you run the ysis, set the following properties to No: • • See also Steel parts: Check design - Enable design check of member Concrete parts: Calculate required area - Enable design check of member Determining member properties (p. 14) Properties of intermediate members When creating an ysis model, Tekla Structures may need to produce more than one ysis member for each physical part. This can result in intermediate members and member ends. Tekla Structures determines the ysis properties of intermediate members as follows: 1. The member ysis type and member axis location of the ysis members are the same as of the original part. 28 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis The number of values you can enter depends on the option you selected in the Kmode field. 30) Effective buckling length Effective buckling length is K*L. which represent the building levels. The support conditions of all intermediate member ends are Connected. a value described by the Kmode design property. To calculate a part’s effective buckling length: 1. For more information. 29) Kmode options (p. Intermediate member ends do not have ysis offsets. for example.Length factor for buckling field. For more information about the available options. enter values in the relevant buckling length fields. Go to the L .2. The translational and rotational degrees of freedom are all Fixed. See also The ysis offsets of the part ends apply to the corresponding ysis member ends. 3.00. For multiple values: • • Enter a value for each column segment starting with the lowest segment. The number of values you need to enter depends on the option you selected in the Kmode field. Enter one or more values in the K . leave the fields blank. This reflects the nature of the physical part. You can also use multiplication to repeat factors. L is length. To override one or more length values. 3*2. 4. To automatically calculate length values. see Defining buckling lengths (columns) (p. and Use spaces to separate multiple values: • 4. 2. 3. You can use multiplication to repeat buckling lengths. The other design properties are the same for the ysis members as for the original part. see Kmode options (p. Create the ysis model and use the Tools > Inquire > Object command on a part. 5. where K is the length factor and L is the buckling length. K is the length factor for buckling. Tekla Structures automatically divides columns into segments at the point where a support in the buckling direction exists. 3*4000. for example. Determining member properties (p. See also Effective buckling length (p. 30). 29). or where the column profile changes. Select an option for Kmode. Open the part properties dialog box and go to the Design tab. The effective buckling length of each ysis member is K*L. The Inquire Object dialog box opens and displays the member number and the effective buckling length for each segment: TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis 29 .Buckling length field: • • 5. 14) Defining buckling lengths (columns) Tekla Structures allows you to define buckling lengths for column segments. which is a continuous length. L is the length of the member in the ysis model.Kmode options Use the Kmode options to define how Tekla Structures calculates buckling lengths. L is the length of one column segment. L is the length of the member in the ysis model with user-defined factors and lengths for each member. multiple values Description L is the length of the column. multiple values ytical member ytical member. L is the length of one column segment with user-defined factors and lengths for each column segment. The options are: Option Physical member Column segment Column segment. 30 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis . button to open the attributes dialog box. 72). See ysis model geometry (p. open the part properties dialog box and click the Userdefined attributes.1. 67) and ysis part properties (p.. Use the ysis model geometry settings and ysis properties of parts to define how Tekla Structures creates ysis models. You can also modify several properties on the ysis and ysis (2) tabs of the attributes dialog box: TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis 31 .3 Fine-tuning ysis models Several properties and user-defined attributes enable you to control how Tekla Structures creates ysis models.. To modify the user-defined attributes. use this to force truss-type ysis members to meet in the ysis model. 34). See also Adding intermediate nodes (p. for example. Enter distances. Split distances To define additional nodes in the member. None Extending only uses the Dx end offset when it extends the beam. and ignores it when it shortens the beam. 34). Enter a value for the z coordinate. Options/Values Consider longitudinal model offsets Auto (default) uses the Dx end offset if it extends the beam.Attribute Node offsets Description Moves the part in the ysis model when members do not meet and are not connected. Controls the member longitudinal offsets. a curved beam. For example. Used in optimization. of split nodes Use to create additional nodes or yze a beam as straight segments. Always No. 32 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis . Yes No Distance Design group (optimization) Member level (z) Defines which design group the part belongs to. Sets the same z coordinate for all nodes. The Keep axis attribute overrides this attribute. Merges nodes within the distance specified into a single node. separated by spaces. or if it shortens the beam and there is a node near the shortened position. Enter the number of nodes. enter distances from the part starting point to the node. See also Adding intermediate nodes (p. for example: 1000 1500 3000 Curved beam by straight segments Node merge distance Use to yze a curved beam as straight segments. Use with the Force to centric connection option in the ysis Model Properties For each point: 0 = disable 1 = enable For example: dialog box to specify which parts to use rigid links. for example: HEA120|HEA140 To enable connections. Enter the part names. ysis plate thickness. Rigid link Enables or disables rigid links at the start. Connect to (part IDs) Forces or disables connections between the ysis members you specify. enter two profiles separated by a pipe character. Pinned rigid link (to part names) • • • • 0 = no rigid links 100 = rigid link at start point 111 = rigid links at start. To prevent connection. and end point 001 = rigid link at end point Connects the part using pinned rigid links to the parts you specify. Enter the size of the bounding box around the opening. Connect exclusively Select Yes to connect the part only to the parts defined by the Connect to (part IDs) attribute.Attribute Profile Description ysis part profile. and end points of parts. See also Using rigid links (p. Options/Values Select a profile from the profile catalog. separated by spaces. Select Yes to fix the location of member axis so that Tekla Structures does not shift the axis when it makes members meet in the ysis model. separated by spaces. mid. enter the part ID’s. Use to ignore short plate cantilevers in the ysis. Use to ignore small openings in plates in the ysis. Enter a cantilever length. enter negative part ID’s. Overrides the Node merge distance attribute. You can use different ysis profiles at the start and end of parts if the ysis application you use supports it. separated by spaces. For example. To use different profiles at part ends. 35). You can also use wildcards (see Wildcards). Works with the Connect exclusively attribute. commas. use this with the Node merge distance attribute Keep axis to force truss-type members to meet in the ysis model. or semicolons. mid. Thickness Minimum hole size (to consider) Short cantilever limit (to remove) TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis 33 . Select No to connect plates using rigid links. 21) Adding intermediate nodes Sometimes intermediate nodes are needed along a member. For walls the bottom edge can be inclined. Select Yes to connect plates by moving plate nodes. For example: 1203 -1205 -1206 Simple plate Select Yes to create a simpler ysis model of plates. Simply: only translations are fixed Fully: both translations and rotations are fixed Some attributes are only available if you select the Extended clash check checkbox in the ysis Model Properties dialog box.Attribute Mesh point IDs (add/remove) Description Use to exclude nodes from or include nodes in plate element meshes. where cuts and openings are not considered. 38). See also To find out how to create user-defined attributes. enter the point ID’s. To create additional nodes. A closer look at the ysis model (p. instead of using rigid links. enter negative point ID’s. To exclude nodes. for all edge nodes of a slab. You can create supports for the bottom edge of a wall. Options/Values To include nodes. see Adding properties. Trim plate connections Supported Use to define supports for plates and beams. without moving nodes. use the following user-defined attributes on the ysis tab of the part properties dialog box: 34 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis . separated by spaces. Only nodes created because of connected members or loads can be excluded. see Creating common nodes (p. 37) ysis offsets of plates (p. or for all nodes of a beam. They are: • • • • • Rigid link Node merge distance Connect to (part IDs) Connect exclusively Keep axis For more information on the Extended clash check. for example in frequency ysis. Tekla Structures adds nodes using these distances: Using rigid links You can enable or disable rigid links using the Node definition method (p. 78) in the entire ysis model. If Node definition is Use rigid links. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis 35 . rigid links are used. but it is possible to force rigid links in specific places. Tekla Structures gives equal spacing to added nodes. but it is possible to prevent the use of rigid links in specific places. Split distances Enter the distance values from the part starting point.• • No. You can override this setting in specific places: • • If Node definition is Force to centric connection. of split nodes Enter the number of nodes. rigid links are generally not used. Example 1 The node definition method of the ysis model is Force to centric connection. use the user-defined attribute Rigid link in the part properties. The value of the attribute is a three-digit number of 1’s and/or 0’s. • • 1 = rigid link enabled 0 = rigid link disabled The first digit is the setting for the part start point. and you have set the Keep axis attribute to Yes for both parts. and the third digit is setting for the part end point. To create the rigid link. A rigid link is created at a connection between two members if: • • An eccentric connection exists. If the Rigid link attribute is not set. the second digit is the setting for all intermediate points between the start and end point. Rigid links are enabled for both parts. Tekla Structures creates a rigid link. If you are merging nodes of two parts. either as an ysis model property or user-defined attribute of parts. there will be no rigid link.To define rigid links. use the following values of the user-defined attribute Rigid link: 36 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis . TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis 37 . (Rigid link is wanted in mid beam. there will be rigid links. Topics A closer look at the ysis model (p.) Example 2 The node definition method of the ysis model is Use rigid links. If the Rigid link attribute is not set. 40) A closer look at the ysis model This section gives detailed information on how Tekla Structures creates ysis models of physical models. 39) Load modeling code (p. (No rigid link is created for intermediate nodes. (Rigid link is wanted at beam start point. type in 010.) 1. set the attribute for one part only: For this beam. 37) Loads in ysis (p.4 ysis information and settings This section generally discusses the ysis process and describes ysis settings.) For this brace.For this beam. type in 101. To disable rigid link between two members. 39) ysis method (p. type in 100. see Defining nodes (p. 16)) Tekla Structures does not split members with the Truss. 77)) Component objects (minor parts. Horizontal parts Other parts Vertical parts and parts that have the user-defined attribute Keep axis set to Yes do not move. Nodes connecting members and elements Tekla Structures first creates ysis nodes: • • • Creating common nodes On member axes at the ends of parts At the intersection points of member axes At the corners of elements Tekla Structures then checks if the ysis members have common nodes. you may need to try different modeling methods and ysis model properties in order to create an accurate ysis model of a complex physical model. etc. Tension only. Also. For more information on user-defined attributes. Because of this. 78). 31). For more information on the nodes.) Parts with the Ignore setting (see Member ysis type (p. Element nodes This is how Tekla Structures creates nodes when plates connect with other parts: 38 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis .The methods used to create a physical model affect the ysis model. use the user-defined attributes Node merge distance and Keep axis. 31). To force truss member nodes to meet at the same point. even if you have included them in the ysis model (see Objects in an ysis model (p. select Extended clash check checkbox in the ysis Model Properties dialog box. 38) Nodes connecting members and elements (p. see Fine-tuning ysis models (p. Tekla Structures extends each part’s bounding box by 1 mm to find parts that clash. bolts. If the part end points are not within 10 mm of each other. See also Objects (p. The user-defined attribute Connect to (part IDs) forces the parts to meet. 76)): • • • Truss members Parts and loads that are filtered out (see ysis model filter (p. 2. Tekla Structures moves the nodes in the following order: 1. To force Tekla Structures to find parts that clash and create common nodes for them. 38) Objects Tekla Structures ignores the following objects in the ysis. For more information on user-defined attributes. If the end points of the parts are within 10 mm of each other. see Finetuning ysis models (p. Other methods Tekla Structures also creates common nodes for members if: See also • • • • A connection exists between the members. reinforcing bars. supported nodes are not moved. or Compression only setting (truss members) when two or more truss members intersect with a normal member or with another truss member. of which the load’s spanning properties and distance from each part are most important. bounding box. and load panel properties. Tekla Structures creates a node at the column. depending on the filtering criteria. Load panel properties. The left. If several members receive the load. Tekla Structures binds loads to nodes or members in the ysis model. Temperature loads are like line loads which affect an entire member. it is a member load. Member load Other loads If a load does not meet the criteria for the nodal load. See Applying loads to parts (p. 52). A load is a nodal load if: Line loads Area and uniform loads Nodal load • • It is between two nodes and the distance to the nearest node is less than 110 mm. In load decomposition. It is not between two nodes (even outside the member) but inside the bounding box and meets the part name or selection filtering criteria. Tekla Structures creates the ysis elements so that the plates have common nodes on the edges of the plates. right. Point loads A point load is applied to the nearest node. You define which loads are included in the ysis model. based on each load’s part name or selection filtering criteria. and bottom surfaces of the member a temperature load affects define the direction of the load. especially single or double spanning and spanning direction. These decomposed loads are then applied to members and elements. the parts to which a load is applied are projected to the load plane. Loads in ysis These are the principles that Tekla Structures follows when it processes loads in the physical model to create ysis model loads. Members inside the bounding box of the load and that match the part name or selection filtering criteria receive the load. 50) and Modifying load distribution (p. and in special cases to point loads if they are not perpendicular to the part they are applied to. Tekla Structures applies these loads to members and elements. Area loads are decomposed to line loads. bounding box. The load is then applied to these parts according to the load panel properties. Nodal loads do not cause parts to bend. In special cases the line load may be decomposed to point loads if it is not perpendicular to the part it is applied to. the load is distributed based on the length of each member and the distance between the load and member. top. Load modeling code Use the Options dialog box to determine the building code and safety factors Tekla Structures uses in load combination. and load panel properties. also affect load decomposition. it may either snap to the nearest location or it may be split into several loads. or member or element location. Member loads lie along the length of the member and cause member deformations. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis 39 . A line load is transferred to members and elements that are inside the bounding box of the line load.Connected part Beam Column Another plate Action Tekla Structures splits the beam and creates nodes in it at the element corners. and that match the part name or selection filtering criteria of the load. If the point load is not located directly on any of these. The partial safety factors in limit states. Select the code in the Load modeling code list box. ysis method You can use either the linear (first order). Go to the Current code tab. This takes into account major deflections. Tekla Structures treats materials as linear. American code. 80).. based on load group types. for the French code for steel structures. 40 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Getting Started with ysis . for the Eurocode.. 2. or non-linear (second order. ysis method in Tekla Structures. American Concrete Institute publication 318. for the British code. American code. The non-linear method considers the non-linear nature of the geometry. 4. based on load group types. P-delta). Change load combination factors on the appropriate tab if needed: Tab Current code Eurocode Description The code to follow in ysis and load combination. Click Tools > Options > Options. 3. If you have to change the code during a project. based on load group types. The partial safety factors in limit states. Uniform building code. you will also need to change the load group types and check load combinations. Click OK. International building code. but not the non-linear nature of materials. based on load group types. More information Load combination factors (p. for the US code. for the French code for concrete structures. based on load group types. The partial safety factors in limit states and reduction factors. See also ysis method (p. 84) British AISC (US) UBC (US) CM66 (F) BAEL91 (F) IBC (US) ACI 5.1. > Load modeling. The partial safety factors in limit states. The partial safety factors in limit states. wind. and seismic loads. Each load in a load model has to belong to a load group. In Tekla Structures. Load model A load model is the portion of the Tekla Structures model that includes all loads. line loads.2 Loads Introduction Once you have modeled physical structures by creating parts you can start adding loads. This chapter is divided into the following sections: In this chapter Assumed background Contents • • • • • • Basics (p. 49) Working with loads (p. 45) Distributing loads (p. load types. It also includes a general description of load groups. 56) 2. 41) Grouping loads (p. Each load can only belong to one load group. A load group is a set of loads that are treated alike during load combination. together with the load group and building code information related to them. We assume that you have created a Tekla Structures model and have a basic understanding of modeling. You can also model temperature. Either attach loads to specific parts or to locations. 56) contains step-by-step instructions for all load commands.1 Basics This section presents some Tekla Structures vocabulary and concepts to help you start to model loads. 42) Load types and properties (p. area loads with uniform or variable distribution. A load group can contain one or more loads. Load reference (p. Load groups should contain loads caused by the same action and to which you want to refer collectively. Tekla Structures assumes that all loads in a group: Load group • Have the same partial safety and other combination factors TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads 41 . and load properties. you can create point loads. This chapter explains how to create and group loads. 53) Load reference (p. 50). you can attach each load to a part for modeling purposes. To automatically include seismic loads in the x and y directions in load combinations: 1. Working with loads In Tekla Structures.2 Grouping loads Load groups should contain loads caused by the same action and to which you want to refer collectively. Tekla Structures assumes that all loads in a group: • • • Topics Have the same partial safety and other combination factors Have the same action direction Occur at the same time and all together Load group properties (p. 44) 42 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads . 46). You need to create load groups because the same action can cause different types of loads. You can include as many loads as you like in a load group. see Seismic ysis (p. 43) Working with load groups (p. See Attaching loads to parts or locations (p. You can also create floating loads that are bound to locations rather than parts. For more information. point loads and area loads. 50) 2. Use the load’s bounding box and part name filter or a selection filter to define which parts carry the load. of any load type. 80). for example. 43) Load group compatibility (p. 83). See Creating load combinations (p. 63). To automatically include the self-weight of parts in load combinations. 84) Attaching loads to parts or locations (p. 42) and Load combination (p. See Load types (p. 50). Topics Automatic loads and load groups (p. select the Include selfweight checkbox when you create load combinations.• • Have the same action direction Occur at the same time and all together See Grouping loads (p. Define the code to follow in the seismic ysis. 86). See Applying loads to parts (p. See Create Wind Load (p. See also Load combination types (p. Define the load groups to include in the seismic ysis and their factors. 2. Wind loads Seismic loads Use the Wind load generator (28) tool to define the effects of wind on a structure. 42) Automatic loads and load groups Self-weight Tekla Structures automatically calculates the self-weight of structural parts using the density of the material and the dimensions of the part. 42). 83). imposed. The type of a load group is the type of action that causes the loads.. Each load group must have a unique name. Tekla Structures applies the Current load group. 43) Working with load groups (p. See Load modeling code (p. Load group direction affects which loads Tekla Structures combines in load combination: • • Color See also z direction groups are combined with both x and y direction groups. The properties are: Current Name When you apply loads in the model. Individual loads in a load group retain their own magnitudes in the global or local x. you can select. See Filtering objects. click the Load groups icon on the Loads and ysis toolbar to open the Load Groups dialog box. Use different colors for different load groups. and/or crane loads Snow loads Wind loads Temperature loads Accidental and/or earthquake loads Imperfection loads Tekla Structures automatically determines and applies the self-weight of parts.. Load Groups. 39). and/or prestressing loads Live. (p. To accurately combine loads which have the same load group type. Direction The direction of a load group is the global direction of the action that causes the loads. and z directions. 49). 39) and Load combination (p. Use load group names to define the visibility and selectability of loads. See also Load magnitude (p.. > Load modeling. See Load modeling code (p. modify. or hide loads based on their load group.. Actions causing loads are building code specific. 44) Load group compatibility When Tekla Structures creates load combinations for structural ysis. For example. 56) Load group compatibility (p. y. you need to identify which load groups: • • Can occur at the same time (are compatible) Exclude each other (are incompatible) TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads 43 . You can only define one load group as Current. x or y direction groups are not combined with each other. Most building codes use some or all of the following actions and load group types: Type • • • • • • • Permanent. traffic. it follows the building code you select in Tools > Options > Options.Load group properties To define the properties of a load group. See Automatic loads and load groups (p. dead. one. In load combination Tekla Structures only takes into account one load group in an incompatible grouping at a time. > Load modeling. Tekla Structures then includes none.. Incompatible load groups always exclude each other. 56) Working with load groups (p.. 44 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads . or all of the compatible load groups in a load combination. For example. this is where you set load group properties and indicate load group compatibility. click Load groups icon on the Loads and ysis toolbar to open the Load Groups dialog box. a wind loading from the x direction is incompatible with a wind loading from the y direction. you will also need to change the load group types and check load combinations.. They can actually be one single loading.. several. 44) Working with load groups Use the Load groups dialog box to view. They cannot occur at the same time. Click the Load groups icon on the Loads and ysis toolbar to open the dialog box: Load group types vary according to the code defined in Tools > Options > Options. Incompatibility Tekla Structures automatically applies basic compatibility facts. Enter numbers to indicate compatibility. (p. for example. a live loading that needs to be split in parts acting on different spans of a continuous beam. For example. See also Load Groups. Compatibility indicators are all 0 by default. If you have to change the code during a project. Tekla Structures does not combine loads in the x direction with those in the y direction. modify. and delete load groups. such as self-weight being compatible with all other loads. define. It indicates that Tekla Structures combines the load groups as defined in the building code. Compatibility Compatible load groups can act together or separately.To define load group compatibility. or live loads being compatible with wind load.. then select a load group in the dialog box and click the Change load group button.3 Load types and properties Introduction Each load has a type and properties which define it (e. If you have already run the ysis. magnitude. with the extension lgr. Use the load properties dialog box to view or modify the properties of a load. and distribution).. See also Load Groups.. from the pop-up menu to use load groups from another model.\TeklaStructures\*version*\environments\*your environment*\system folder. Right-click on the load group list in the Load Groups dialog box and select Import. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads 45 . The associated loads are highlighted in the model. If you have many loads in the model. Click ysis > Properties and select a load type to open its properties dialog box. you can show the group name and magnitude in the model view by right-clicking a load and selecting Inquire from the pop-up menu. select the load in the model. (p.. • • Right-click on a load group in the Load Groups dialog box and select Export. Tekla Structures saves the load group files in the folder you specify. select the load in the model and click the Load groups by loads button. To find out which loads belong to a load group.g. The default load groups are defined in the DefaultLoadGroups. Changing the load group To move a load to a different load group. direction. you can import and export load groups. Importing and exporting load groups To use the same load groups in other models. select the load group in the dialog box and click the Loads by load groups button.. This section describes the different load types and the properties of each load type.. Tekla Structures highlights the load group in the dialog box.lgr file.. 56) 2. Tekla Structures also highlights the parts that carry this load. located in the . from the pop-up menu to allow the load group to be used in other models..Checking loads and load groups To find out which load group a load belongs to. you can select. 46) Load forms (p. 48) Load magnitude (p.Filtering by properties Topics You can use load types and groups in filters. modify. 49) Temperature loads and strain (p. or hide loads based on their type and load group. Load types (p. 42) Distributing loads (p. See Filtering objects. For example. 49) See also Load types Tekla Structures includes the following load types: 46 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads . 49) Grouping loads (p. You do not have to bind the polygon to parts. A linearly-distributed force or torsion. A line load can be attached to a part. Area loads can have openings.Uniform load Area load Point load Line loads Load type Point load Line load Description A concentrated force or bending moment that can be attached to a part. You can also create a line load with offsets from the points. Its magnitude can vary linearly across the loaded length. A uniformly-distributed force bounded by a polygon. Area load Uniform load TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads 47 . You do not have to bind the boundary of the area to parts. By default it runs from a point to another point. Uniform loads can have openings. A linearly-distributed force bounded by a triangle or quadrangle. when the layout of beams changes. Area load The load form of an area load defines the shape of the loaded area. Tekla Structures recalculates the loads to the beams. Load forms Distributed loads (line and area loads) can have different load forms. to a fixed value in the middle of the loaded length. from zero at the ends of the loaded length. from zero at one end of the loaded length. It will not do this if you use point or line loads on individual beams. For example. The load has different magnitudes at the ends of the loaded length. back to zero at the other end. Strain An initial axial elongation or shrinkage of a part. To ensure that load ysis is correct. The options are: Option Description The load magnitude is uniform across the loaded length. It can be: Option Description Quadrangular Triangular 48 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads .Load type Temperature load Description • • A uniform change in temperature. The magnitude changes linearly between the ends. The load magnitude changes linearly. A temperature difference between two surfaces of a part that causes the part to bend. use area and uniform loads for loads on floors. through two (different) values. and that causes axial elongation in parts. The load magnitude changes linearly. Line load The load form of a line load defines how the load magnitude varies along the loaded length. that is applied to specified parts.4 Distributing loads This section explains how to attach loads and how to define which parts. and z directions. when you create loads perpendicular to sloped parts. 52). M is for bending moments acting on a position or along a line. Temperature loads and strain Temperature loads can be caused by: • • • An increase or decrease in temperature A difference in temperature between the top and bottom surfaces of a part A difference in temperature between the sides of a part Temperature changes cause axial elongation or uniform volume expansion in parts. along a line. See also Create Temperature Load (p. For example. the magnitude of line loads may vary along the loaded length. Strain Strain is an initial axial elongation (+) or shrinkage (-) of a part. 62) 2. 49) Load magnitude Load magnitude can occur in x. In the load properties dialog boxes. T is for torsional moments acting along a line. carry loads. the following letters denote magnitudes of different types: • • • P is for a force acting on a position.. click ysis > Properties > Temperature Load. shifting the work plane helps you to place loads accurately. Some types of loads can have several magnitude values. For example.. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads 49 . see Loaded length or area (p. 48). See Work plane. or lengths and areas of parts. y. or across an area. and use the Magnitude tab.For information on how to define the length or area a load affects. See Defining the work area. See also Load magnitude (p. so positive coordinates indicate a positive load direction. To define the temperature loads and strain that affect parts. Different surface temperatures cause parts to bend. See Load forms (p. The coordinate system is the same as the current work plane. To do this. 50). not to parts. 52) Attaching loads to parts or locations You can attach loads to parts or locations for modeling purposes. you must select the part before picking the position for the load. 50) Applying loads to parts (p. etc. Tekla Structures searches for parts in the areas that you specify. 50 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads . it affects the load. deleted. 50) Loaded length or area (p. For each load. copied. This load is bound to the position you pick when you create the load. you can define the load-bearing parts by name or selection filter. To define which parts carry a load. Attaching a load to a part binds the load and the part together in the model. and the search area. If the part is moved. a prestressing load moves with the part to which it is attached. it affects the load. copied. To attach a load to parts or locations. For example. On the Distribution tab. see Applying loads to parts (p. If you do not attach a load to a part. etc. deleted. and disappears if the part is deleted. If the part is moved. open the load’s properties dialog box and click the Distribution tab. Applying loads to parts In order to apply loads in the structural ysis model. select an option in the Load attachment list box: Option Attach to member Don’t attach Description Attaches the load to a specific part. If you select the Attach to member option. Tekla Structures fixes the load to the position(s) you pick when you create the load. open the load properties dialog box. The load is not attached but it is considered a floating load...Topics Attaching loads to parts or locations (p. To define the load-bearing parts by selection filter: 1. For more information on selection filters and filtering. y.Load-bearing parts To define the load-bearing parts by name: 1. line. Offset distances from the reference line or area do not affect the size of the bounding box. See Wildcards. Enter the part names. 52). The bounding box is the volume around the load that Tekla Structures searches for load-bearing parts. See Loaded length or area (p. Select Include parts by filter to define the parts that carry the load. or area of the load. In the Load-bearing parts list box: • • 2. Bounding box Use the load’s bounding box to define the area to search for the parts that carry the load. See also Each load’s load panel properties also affect which parts receive the load. The dimensions are measured from the reference point. Select Include parts by name to define the parts that carry the load. Each load has its own bounding box. Select Exclude parts by name to define the parts that do not carry the load. 54). see Filtering objects. See Modifying load distribution (p. 52). Select Exclude parts by filter to define the parts that do not carry the load. See also Handles (p. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads 51 . and z directions of the current work plane. Select the selection filter in the second list box. You can use wildcards when listing the part names. You can define the dimensions of a bounding box in the x. In the Load-bearing parts list box: • • 2. you must also define the primary axis direction. Area load To enlarge the area an area load affects. enter positive values for a and b. Then use the values in the Distances fields in the load properties dialog boxes to pinpoint the length or area. Tekla Structures calculates the weight for the secondary direction by subtracting this value from 1. You can shorten or divide the loaded length. enter a negative value. Tekla Structures distributes loads using the panel method. modify the properties on the Load panel tab in the load properties dialog box.Loaded length or area If a line. To modify the way loads are distributed. you can define the primary axis direction by picking a part in the model and setting this option to Parallel to part or Perpendicular to part. Modifying load distribution By default. enter a positive value for a. area. No: Enter the weight for the primary direction in the Weight field. The properties are: Property Spanning Description Single: in the direction of the primary axis only Double: along the primary and secondary axes Primary axis direction If Spanning is set to Single. To manually define the primary axis weight when Spanning is set to Double. Automatic primary axis weight Yes: Tekla Structures automatically calculates the load portions for primary and secondary directions. To reduce the area. 52 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads . Line load To shorten or divide the length of a line load. pick one close to it. or uniform load affects a length or area which is difficult to pick in the model. and enlarge or reduce the loaded area. click Modify to update the properties of the load in the model. 2. the given Weight value (0. 54) Defining varying wind loads (p. double-click it in the model to open the relevant load properties dialog box. Yes: for uniform loads on continuous slabs. automatic primary axis weight and the weight value affect the proportions of the load which is applied to the primary axis and to the perpendicular axis. For the first and last spans. Topics Changing loaded length or area (p. instead of 1/2 and 1/2. • If Automatic primary axis weight is No.Property Load dispersion angle Use continuous structure load distribution Description The angle by which the load is projected onto the surrounding elements. • If Automatic primary axis weight is Yes. the shorter the span. When you have finished.50 in this example) is used to divide the load. the proportions will be in proportion to the third power of the span lengths in these two directions. 55) TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads 53 . the distribution of support reactions is 3/8 and 5/8.e. The Weight value does not matter. 54) Scaling loads in model views (p. the bigger the proportion of the load. i. No Example When using double spanning.5 Working with loads To modify the properties of a load. You can use these handles to move load ends and corners: 1.Changing loaded length or area As well as changing load properties. See Moving an object using drag-anddrop. you can modify loads by: • • • • Handles Moving line load ends Moving uniform load corners Changing the shape of openings in loads Adding corners to uniform loads Tekla Structures indicates the load reference points (the ends and corners of line. 3. 2.. just drag the handle to a new position. click Tools > Options > Options. > Load modeling and go to the Arrow length tab: 54 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads . Select the load to display its handles. Move the handle(s) like any other object.. or so large that they hide the structure. Scaling loads in model views You can have Tekla Structures scale loads when you are modeling. the handles are magenta. See Moving an object. To scale loads in model views. use the Modify Polygon Shape command. To add corners to uniform loads. This ensures that loads are not too small to see. Tekla Structures highlights the handle. See Modifying the shape of a polygon. and uniform loads) using handles. area. When you select a load. If you have Drag and drop on. Click the handle you want to move. In the example below. and point loads with magnitude of 10 kN or more are 2500 mm high. Tekla Structures linearly scales all point loads that have a magnitudes between 1 kN and 10 kN between 250 mm and 2500 mm. the loads in the global x direction are multiplied by 3 at both corners of wall 1. 63) command allows you to define which zones have concentrated wind load. Defining varying wind loads The Create Wind Load (p. Define the width of the zone using either dimensions or proportions. Each zone is the height of the wall. You can define up to five zones for each wall. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads 55 .Example You define that point loads with magnitude of 1 kN or less are 250 mm high in the model. 63) Create Temperature Load (p. 61) Create Wind Load (p. Creates a uniformly-distributed polygonal area load using at least three picked points. 62) Icon Description Displays the Load Groups dialog box. 56) Create Point Load (p. Command Load Groups. use the icons on the Loads and ysis toolbar or select a command from the ysis > Loads menu. To create loads. Load Groups. (p. 59) Create Area Load (p. Creates a point load at a picked position. 2. Creates wind loads on a structure. 58) Create Line Load (p. Synopsis This command displays the Load Groups dialog box that you can use to manage load groups.. Creates a line load between two picked points. Creates an area load using three picked points. 56 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads ..6 Load reference This section consists of the reference pages for the load commands. 60) Create Uniform Load (p.. or a temperature difference between two part surfaces.The Wind load generator (28) dialog box contains one tab for each wind direction. The following table lists the commands for creating loads and gives a short description of each one. Defines a temperature change in a part.. To delete a load group: 1. enter the number you have used for the load groups that are compatible with this load group. Click OK to close the dialog box. Click OK in the warning dialog box.. To change the current load group. and delete load groups. 2. Unique name of the load group. modify.Description Tekla Structures lists all the existing load groups in the Load Groups dialog box. Click Add. Click OK to close the dialog box. Column Current Description The @ symbol identifies the current load group. Load group type. This also deletes the loads in the load group. Select the load group from the list. More information Load group properties (p. A number that identifies all the load groups that are incompatible with each other. 43) Name Type Direction Compatible Load group compatibility (p. 4.. Select the load group from the list. select a load group and click the Set current button. 3. In the Incompatible column. Click Delete. 43) Usage Click ysis > Loads > Load Groups. Change the name. The color that Tekla Structures uses to show the loads in the group. group type. 2. To modify an existing load group: 1. In the Compatible column. or compatibility indicators. 43) Incompatible Color Load group properties (p. Select the default load group from the list. Click the load group type and select a type from the list box. 3. A number that identifies all the load groups that are compatible with each other. Direction of the action that causes the loads in the load group. direction. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads 57 . Click the load group direction to modify it. 5. 6. To define a new load group: 1.. Click the load group name to modify it. To indicate compatibility with existing load groups: • • 7. Use the dialog box to view. based on the action that causes the loads in the group. 2. enter the number you have used for the load groups that are incompatible with this load group. define. 3. In the Load Groups dialog box. 3. 2. right-click on the load group list and select Import. Click the Change load group button. Tekla Structures will warn you. Select a load group in the Load Groups dialog box. To move a load to a different load group: 1. Select a load in the model... from the pop-up menu. Click OK. Right-click and select Export. 44) Grouping loads (p. 4. 42) Create Point Load Synopsis Preconditions This command creates a point load at a position you pick. 58 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads . If you try to delete the only load group.When you delete a load group. browse for the load group files (. 2. Tekla Structures also deletes all the loads in the load group. 3. Tekla Structures highlights the load group in the dialog box. browse for a folder and enter a name for the load group file. Open the Load Groups dialog box. In the Import Load Groups dialog box.lgr) to import. Open the Load Groups dialog box. To find out which loads belong to a load group: 1. See also Working with load groups (p. Click the Loads by load groups button. Select the load groups to export in the Load Groups dialog box. Select a load group in the dialog box. To import load groups: 1. Select the load in the model. You can include several load groups in one load group file. Click OK. 2. 3.. 3. 2. At least one load group must exist. In the Export Load Groups dialog box.. To export load groups: 1. 3. Shift the work plane to create loads perpendicular to sloped parts. Click the Load groups by loads button. from the pop-up menu. Tekla Structures highlights the loads in the model. To find out which load group a load belongs to: 1. 2. Pick the position of the load. and z directions. Double-click the Create point load icon. (p. y. 4. and z directions of the work plane.. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. 42) Load Groups. or not applied. Indicates if the load is attached to a part. on the basis of part names or selection filters. The filename extension of a point load properties file is lm1. Field Load group name Description The load group to which the load belongs. 50) Applying loads to parts (p. The filename extension of a line load properties file is lm2. 5. y. More information Grouping loads (p. 50) Bounding box of the load Load panel tab Modifying load distribution (p.Description Tekla Structures creates the point load using the properties in the Point Load Properties dialog box. Load magnitude (p. More information Grouping loads (p. Parts to which the load is applied.. Enter or modify the load properties. Tekla Structures creates the line load using the properties in the Line Load Properties dialog box.. (p.. Properties used in the load panel load distribution method. 42) Load Groups. 2. Field Load group name Description The load group to which the load belongs. Dimensions of the bounding box in the x. select the part to attach the load to. 52) Usage 1. Load forms (p. 48) TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads 59 . 56) Load form Defines how the load magnitude varies along the loaded length. If you have selected the Attach to member option. Shift the work plane to create loads perpendicular to sloped parts. See also Points Creating a point Using commands Create Line Load Synopsis Preconditions Description This command creates a line load between two picked points. 3. 56) Magnitude tab Load attachment Load-bearing parts Load magnitudes in the x. 49) Attaching loads to parts or locations (p. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. If you have selected the Attach to member option. the points you pick define the loaded area. Offsets from the load end points. on the basis of part names or selection filters.. y. 5. See also Points Creating a point Using commands Create Area Load Synopsis Preconditions Description This command creates an area load using three picked points. Field Load group name Description The load group to which the load belongs. 4. 49) Attaching loads to parts or locations (p. To create a quadrangular load form. Properties used in the load panel load distribution method. and z directions of the work plane. 56) Load form Defines the shape of the loaded area. y. If you select the triangular load form. 52) Load panel tab Usage 1. used to shorten or lengthen the loaded length.. More information Grouping loads (p. Pick the starting point. Indicates if the load is attached to a part. pick three points and Tekla Structures automatically determines the fourth corner point. 42) Load Groups. Parts to which the load is applied. Tekla Structures creates the area load using the properties in the Area Load Properties dialog box.Field Magnitude tab Load attachment Load-bearing parts Description Load magnitudes in the x. Load forms (p. The filename extension of an area load properties file is lm3. Enter or modify the load properties. (p. 52) Modifying load distribution (p. 50) Applying loads to parts (p. select the part to attach the load to. 48) 60 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads . or not applied. and z directions. 3. More information Load magnitude (p. 6. 50) Bounding box of the load Distances Loaded length or area (p. Pick the end point. Dimensions of the bounding box in the x. 2. Area loads affect triangular or quadrangular areas. Double-click the Create line load icon. Shift the work plane to create loads perpendicular to sloped parts. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. slabs. Properties used in the load panel load distribution method. Pick three corner points. Tekla Structures automatically takes openings in plates. or not applied. Uniform loads can have openings. Parts to which the load is applied. polygonal area load using at least three picked points. Offset used to enlarge or reduce the loaded area. More information Load magnitude (p. Enter or modify the load properties. 50) Bounding box of the load Distances Load panel tab Loaded length or area (p. 3. Dimensions of the bounding box in the x. 31). Indicates if the load is attached to a part. 49) Attaching loads to parts or locations (p. For more about user-defined attributes. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads 61 . select the part to attach the load to. see Fine-tuning ysis models (p. 52) Usage 1. 50) Applying loads to parts (p. and z directions. If you have selected the Attach to member option. y. use the user-defined attribute Minimum hole size. The filename extension of a uniform load properties file is lm4. See also Points Creating a point Using commands Create Uniform Load Synopsis Preconditions Description This command creates a uniformly-distributed. on the basis of part names or selection filters. 5. Uniform load is an area load distributed uniformly on a polygonal area. The bounding polygon is defined by at least three corner points you pick. Shift the work plane to create loads perpendicular to sloped parts. and z directions of the work plane. 52) Modifying load distribution (p. Tekla Structures creates a uniform load using the properties in the Uniform Load Properties dialog box. y. Double-click the Create area load icon.Field Magnitude tab Load attachment Load-bearing parts Description Load magnitudes in the x. 2. 4. To omit openings when yzing plates. and panels into account. 31). (p. 49) Attaching loads to parts or locations (p. see Fine-tuning ysis models (p. Load magnitude (p. Parts to which the load is applied. and z directions of the work plane. Offset used to enlarge or reduce the loaded area. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. Dimensions of the bounding box in the x. select the part to attach the load to. 50) Applying loads to parts (p. use the user-defined attribute Minimum hole size. Double-click the Create uniform load icon. 50) Bounding box of the load Distances Load panel tab Loaded length or area (p. See also Points Creating a point Using commands Create Temperature Load Synopsis Description This command defines a temperature change in a part. Tekla Structures creates the temperature load using the properties in the Temperature Load Properties dialog box. For more about user-defined attributes.) Pick the first point again and click the middle mouse button to finish picking. slabs. 7. 3. or a temperature difference between two part surfaces. 4. Tekla Structures automatically takes openings in plates.. on the basis of part names or selection filters.Field Load group name Description The load group to which the load belongs. 5. To omit openings when yzing plates.. 6. 52) Modifying load distribution (p. y. y. Indicates if the load is attached to a part. 52) Usage 1. Pick three corner points. and z directions. Properties used in the load panel load distribution method. If you have selected the Attach to member option. 2. Enter or modify the load properties. and panels into account. 62 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads . (Pick the other corner points. or not applied. 42) Load Groups. More information Grouping loads (p. The filename extension of a temperature load properties file is lm6. 56) Magnitude tab Load attachment Load-bearing parts Load magnitudes in the x. Dimensions of the bounding box in the x. A positive value indicates elongation. 56) Magnitude tab Temperature change in the part.. 6. Pick the end point.Field Load group name Description The load group to which the load belongs. a negative value indicates shrinkage.. More information Grouping loads (p. select the part to attach the load to. y. 42) Load Groups. 4. and z directions. or not applied. Axial strain of the part. Difference in temperature between the left and right sides of the part. 3. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. Temperature loads and strain (p. Enter or modify the load properties. To apply temperature load to an entire structure. Parts to which the load is applied. 50) Bounding box of the load Usage 1. Pick the starting point. enter the load in the Temperature change for axial elongation field and adjust the bounding box to surround all the beams and columns in the structure. 50) Applying loads to parts (p. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads 63 . Attaching loads to parts or locations (p. on the basis of part names or selection filters. 2. If you have selected the Attach to member option. Difference in temperature between the top and bottom surfaces of the part. (p. See also Points Creating a point Using commands Create Wind Load Synopsis This modeling tool creates wind loads on a structure. 49) Load attachment Load-bearing parts Indicates if the load is attached to a part. 5. Double-click the Create temperature load icon. Usage 1. Y. Enter or modify the properties. slabs. 55) Applying loads to parts (p. or not applied. Pick points to indicate the shape of the building on the bottom level. You can define up to five zones for each wall. The properties are: Field Wind load direction Description The options are: More information • • • • • Global X Global -X Global Y Global -Y Global X. Defining varying wind loads (p. Global -Y tabs Tekla Structures automatically includes wind loads in load combinations. Zones for concentrated corner loads for each wall. select the Generate wind also in opposite direction checkbox when creating load combinations. and side walls. The lowest level of the wind loads. The external exposure factors for the windward. To also include wind loads from the opposite direction. in terms of pressure factors. Global Y. Global -X. 64 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads . and panels into account. 50) Internal Z profile tab Global X. a negative value indicates suction. Parts to which the load is applied. Starts from the ground level. 2. The internal exposure factor. -Y (for all directions) Nominal wind pressure Top level Bottom level Ground level Part names Front Left side Back Right side The highest level of the wind loads. Click Apply or OK to save the properties. leeward. 5. 3. -X.Preconditions Description Tekla Structures creates wind loads using the properties in the Wind load generator (28) dialog box. Double-click the Create wind load icon. The distribution of wind load along the height of the building. Wind load generator (28) automatically takes openings in plates. 4. Click the middle mouse button to finish. A positive value indicates pressure. The level of the ground around the building. 88) TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads 65 . For more information.Wind load generator (28) creates area loads using the load panel distribution method. see Modifying load distribution (p. See also Automatically including loads in combinations (p. 52).66 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 Loads . This chapter is for engineers who run structural ysis on concrete and steel structures. the locations of member axes. 102). 83) Working with ysis and design models (p. We assume that you have read the Chapter 1. 94) 3. Defining ysis model geometry You can define ysis model geometry by using: • • • ysis model geometry settings for the entire physical model and all its ysis models ysis model geometry rules for specific parts in the physical model ysis properties of individual parts and connections TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 67 . ysis model geometry is a representation of ysis settings applied to a physical model. This chapter is divided into the following sections: Audience Assumed background Contents • • • • • ysis model geometry (p. It indicates. Getting Started with ysis (p.1 ysis model geometry Introduction This section explains how to define ysis model geometry.3 ysis and Design Introduction This chapter explains how to define ysis model geometry in Tekla Structures. 74) Load combination (p. and links between nodes. The ysis model geometry is a means to ensure that each ysis model passed on to the ysis application is accurate. 11). It also includes a general description of ysis and design model properties and an overview of ysis commands. See View ysis Parts (p. You can show ysis parts in Tekla Structures model views. first and defined the support conditions for parts. connection nodes. part nodes. The ysis model geometry includes ysis parts. 67) ysis model properties (p. for example. You will also learn how to create load combinations. 89) ysis and design reference (p.• Geometry settings ysis model properties that control the locations of member axes and nodes Modifying the ysis model geometry does not affect the physical model. ysis model geometry settings define how Tekla Structures creates ysis models of the physical model by default. You can define limits for when to use rigid links (Rigid link limit) and when to merge nodes on a part (Merge distance on beams). To access the ysis model geometry settings, click ysis > Geometry Settings..., or . You can also use ysis model geometry rules to control the ysis model geometry. Geometry rules specify what Tekla Structures does for specific parts in specific conditions to force members to meet in the ysis model, or to prevent them from connecting. For example, you may want Tekla Structures to merge nodes in certain conditions, and in other conditions you may prefer rigid links. ysis geometry rules are based on selection filters. For example, you can define that parts matching the columns filter always keep their member axis locations. See also Creating rules to define ysis model geometry (p. 68) Modifying ysis model geometry (p. 70) Connecting or disconnecting parts in ysis (p. 70) Defining ysis connections of parts (p. 71) ysis part properties (p. 72) ysis model properties (p. 74) Creating rules to define ysis model geometry You can control ysis model geometry with rules created on the basis of selection filters. You can create rules to define how Tekla Structures handles individual parts when it creates ysis models, and how parts are connected with each other in the ysis. Preconditions Usage Create the physical parts and define their individual ysis properties if needed. To create ysis model geometry rules: 1. 2. . Click ysis > Geometry Settings..., or In the ysis Geometry Settings dialog box, click ysis geometry rules.... The ysis Geometry Rules dialog box is displayed. On the Part properties tab: 1. 2. Click Add to add rules to define individual ysis part properties. In the Selection filter column, select a filter for each rule. The properties defined by a rule will be applied to the parts matching the filter. 3. 4. In the Keep axis position always column: • Select Yes to fix the member axis locations of the filtered parts. In the Merge distance on part column, define the distance within which the nodes on the filtered parts are merged to connection nodes. 68 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 5. In the Exact connectivity column: • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Select Yes to connect parts only if their member axes intersect. On the Part connectivity tab: Click Add to add rules to define how two groups of parts are connected with each other in the ysis. In the Selection filter 1 column, select a filter to define the first part group. In the Selection filter 2 column, select a filter to define the second part group. In the Status column: • Select Disabled to prevent connections between the part groups. In the Linkage column, select an option: Option (blank) Description Merges nodes or creates a rigid link according to the rigid link limit defined in the ysis Geometry Settings dialog box. Always merges nodes when parts matching the selection filter 1 connect with parts matching the selection filter 2. Creates a rigid link when parts matching the selection filter 1 connect with parts matching the selection filter 2. Creates a rigid link and a moment release at the nodes of parts matching the selection filter 1. Creates a rigid link and a moment release at the nodes of parts matching the selection filter 2. Creates a rigid link and moment releases at the nodes of parts matching the selection filters 1 and 2. Merge Rigid link Rigid link, moment release at node 1 Rigid link, moment release at node 2 Rigid link, moment release at both nodes On both tabs: • Click Move up or Move down to change the order of rules. The order of the rules is important. On the Part connectivity tab, the last rule applicable to a part is used. On the Part properties tab, the last rule applicable to a pair of parts is used. • • • 1. Click Selection filter... to create a new selection filter that suits your needs. Click Test selected part or Test selected parts to see how rules affect the parts selected in the model. Click Remove to delete the selected rules. To save the settings: To save the ysis geometry rules for later use, enter a name in the field next to the Save as button, and then click Save as. The filename extension of an ysis geometry rules file is adrules. 2. Click OK to save the rules and close the ysis Geometry Rules dialog box. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 69 3. See also Click OK to save the rules with geometry settings and to close the ysis Geometry Settings dialog box. Filtering objects ysis model geometry (p. 67) Modifying ysis model geometry (p. 70) Modifying ysis model geometry In addition to changing the ysis model geometry settings, you can graphically modify the geometry by moving ysis part handles, or you can use the commands in ysis > Edit Geometry. Preconditions Switch View ysis Parts on to show the ysis parts. A check mark next to View ysis Parts on the ysis menu indicates that the ysis parts are already visible. Usage To modify an ysis part by using its handles: 1. Select the ysis part to show the handles. The ysis part handles are white. 2. Select the handle you want to move. 3. If you have Drag and Drop (shortcut D) active, just drag the handle to a new location, or use the Move commands to move handles. Use the appropriate snap switches to snap to the correct locations, for example, Snap to perpendicular points. See Snap switches. See also Connecting or disconnecting parts in ysis (p. 70) Defining ysis connections of parts (p. 71) Reset Geometry for Selected Parts (p. 102) Connecting or disconnecting parts in ysis You can connect and disconnect individual parts in the ysis. Usage To connect parts: 1. 2. Select the parts to connect. Click ysis > Edit Geometry > Connect Parts, or . 70 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 102) Defining ysis connections of parts Use the ysis Member Connectivity dialog box. 70) Reset Geometry for Selected Parts (p. Click OK. Prevent parts from connecting if they connect according to the geometry settings. 2. or . Click ysis > Edit Geometry > Disconnect Parts. See also In the Connectivity mode list box. Click ysis > Edit Geometry > Edit Part Connectivity. View the ysis connections that you have modified using the Connect Parts and Disconnect Parts commands. 70) Reset Geometry for Selected Parts (p. Select the parts to disconnect. 2. 70) Connecting or disconnecting parts in ysis (p. Select the parts to connect to and click Add selected parts next to the Additional forced connectivity list. See also Modifying ysis model geometry (p. 2. 2.To disconnect parts: 1. You can view the modified ysis connections of a part in the ysis Member Connectivity dialog box.. To ignore the ysis model settings for the part and define all ysis connections manually: 1. To use the ysis model geometry settings but override them for the part: 1. . 71). 3. 4. to define the ysis connections of a part to other parts. Click OK. select Manual. In the Connectivity mode list box. See Defining ysis connections of parts (p. Description You can: • • • • Usage Force parts to connect if they do not connect according to the geometry settings. select Automatic. Select the parts to connect to and click Add selected parts. Modifying ysis model geometry (p. Ignore the geometry settings and define all connections manually. 3. 102) TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 71 . in addition to the ysis geometry settings. or Select the part. Select the parts to disconnect from and click Add selected parts next to the Prevented connectivity list.. To view or modify the ysis connections of a part: 1.. for built-up sections.. Sub-part of built-up section Beam sub-part of built-up section: Defines that the main part is a beam. In the ysis. Sets the same z coordinate for all nodes. Select Yes to connect parts only if their member axes intersect.ysis part properties An ysis part is a representation of ysis properties applied to a physical part. See View ysis Parts (p. merges the sub-parts to the main part. It indicates. Click ysis > Properties > ysis Part. You can show ysis parts in Tekla Structures model views. 102).. Merges nodes within the distance specified into a single node. Main part of built-up section: Always use to define the main part of a built-up section. The ysis Part Properties dialog box is displayed. Select the part. You can use the properties of ysis parts to fine-tune ysis model geometry for specific parts. for example. Select Yes to fix the location of member axis so that Tekla Structures does not shift the axis when it makes members meet in the ysis model. Property Built-up section mode Description Indicates the role of the part in a built-up section that consists of a main part and one or more sub-parts. 2. The options are: Corresponding UDA • • • • • • Exact connectivity Merge distance on part Keep axis position always Automatic Not part of built-up section: Disconnects the part from a built-up section. Node merge distance Keep axis Fixed level (z) of member Member level (z) 72 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design . Column sub-part of built-up section: Defines that the main part is a column.. for example. the location of the member axis. To access the properties of an ysis part: 1. They correspond to the user-defined attributes (UDA) of parts used in the previous versions of Tekla Structures. The table below describes the ysis part properties. Select either: • • Use curved member Split into straight segments Use the variable XS_AD_CURVED_BEAM_SPLIT_ACCU RACY_MM in Tools > Options > Advanced Options. 34). See also ysis member offsets (p. enter distances from the part starting point to the node. for example: HEA120|HEA140 Defines whether the longitudinal ysis offsets Dx of the physical part are used (part properties dialog box. Use to create additional nodes or yze a beam as straight segments. Enter the number of nodes. a curved beam. To use different profiles at part ends.. To define additional nodes in the member. Used in optimization. of split nodes Defines which design group the part belongs to. 34).. Design group No. of split nodes Split distances Split distances TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 73 . enter two profiles separated by a pipe character. ysis tab). See also Adding intermediate nodes (p. Enter distances. The options are: Corresponding UDA Profile Longitudinal offset mode Consider longitudinal model offsets • • • Curved beam mode Offsets are not considered Only extensions are considered Offsets are always considered Curved beam by straight segments Defines whether a beam is yzed as a curved beam or as straight segments.Property Replacement profile name Description Select a profile from the profile catalog. You can use different ysis profiles at the start and end of parts if the ysis application you use supports it. 18). for example: 1000 1500 3000 See also Adding intermediate nodes (p. separated by spaces. Design group (optimization) No. for example. > ysis & Design to define how closely straight segments follow the curved beam. Node offsets 3. See also Using rigid links (p. and end points of parts. You can create supports for the bottom edge of a wall. The options are: Supported • • Beam offsets tab Simply: only translations are fixed Fully: both translations and rotations are fixed Use to move ysis part ends to force members to meet in the ysis model. Connects the part using pinned rigid links to the parts you specify. These properties apply to all members in an ysis model. Select Yes to create a simpler ysis model of plates. See Modifying ysis model geometry (p. Corresponding UDA Rigid link Pinned rigid link (to part names) Pinned rigid link (to part names) Simple plate model Simple plate Smallest hole size to consider Minimum hole size (to consider) Supported Use to define supports for plates and beams.2 ysis model properties This section explains the properties that Tekla Structures uses to create ysis members and yze them. You can also move ysis part ends using handles. Use with the Force to centric connection option in the ysis Model Properties dialog box to specify which parts to use rigid links. 35). where cuts and openings are not considered. Enter the size of the bounding box around the opening. or for all nodes of a beam. 70).Property Rigid link Description Enables or disables rigid links at the start. Use to ignore small openings in plates in the ysis. For walls the bottom edge can be inclined. mid. 74 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design . for all edge nodes of a slab. 82) TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 75 . 82) Contents of STAAD. 78) Defining nodes (p. 81) Design codes and methods (p. which you can define. 78) Model merging with ysis applications (p. 80) Modal ysis (p... For example.Tekla Structures also takes into account the individual ysis properties defined in the parts’ properties.. Defining ysis model properties To set the properties for a new ysis model: 1. See Determining member properties (p. ysis application Model name Topics Click ysis > ysis & Design Models. Objects in an ysis model (p.. 80) Seismic ysis (p. you could use a name that describes the portion of the physical model you want to yze.. 79) ysis method (p. 2. Each ysis model must have a unique name. 2.. Click Properties... Click ysis > ysis & Design Models.. 76) Member axis (p. 3. Click New. To view or modify the properties of an existing ysis model: 1.. Select the model. Tekla Structures links with a number of ysis applications and also supports import and export with them in several formats. The ysis application you use to run structural ysis uses data from the ysis model to generate ysis results. 14).Pro results files and reports (p... 77) Member end connectivity (p. Includes all the main parts and loads that are inside or partly inside the work area when you create the ysis model. you can create ysis models of: • • • Creation method The entire physical and load models A particular sub structure under a specific loading A single part To define which objects to include in an ysis model. and parts created by components. slabs. Even if you select Full model. floor beams. Tekla Structures does not include parts created by most components in the ysis model. select an option from the Creation method list box. use the following buttons in the ysis & Design Models dialog box: By work area By selected parts By selected parts and loads • • Floor model by selected parts and loads Add selected objects Remove selected objects Only includes selected columns. so these parts are included in the ysis model: • • • • Truss (S78) Shed (S75) Building (S58) and (S91) Slab generation (61) and (62) 76 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design . except for parts whose ysis type is set to Ignore on the ysis tab of part dialog box. and loads. open the ysis Model Properties dialog box. 37). Only includes selected parts and loads. To later add or remove parts and loads. The options are: Option Full model Description Includes all main parts and loads. The following components set the ysis properties of the parts they create.Objects in an ysis model You can define which objects to include in an ysis model. See A closer look at the ysis model (p. Tekla Structures ignores some objects in the ysis. On the ysis model tab. Only includes selected parts. For example. Tekla Structures automatically adds physical objects to the ysis model when they are created. Tekla Structures replaces columns in the physical model with supports. select a filter from the Filter list box on the ysis model tab in the ysis Model Properties dialog box. Tekla Structures automatically adds new objects you create in the physical model to the ysis model if they fulfill the criteria in the ysis model filter. from the ysis model.When you create an ysis model using the Full model option. 89) Member axis The locations of the member axes of parts define where the ysis members actually meet. The options are: Option Neutral axis Description The neutral axis is the member axis for all parts. and their length in the ysis model. Reference axis TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 77 . select an option from the Member axis location list box. The part reference line is the member axis for all parts. 74) Working with ysis and design models (p. See also Part position. the number of objects in the ysis & Design Models dialog box changes only when you update the ysis model. 90). Use the ysis model filter to filter out non-structural parts. See also To add individual objects to an ysis model. ysis model properties (p. The location of the member axis changes if the profile of the part changes. see Adding or removing ysis objects (p. To check which objects are included in an ysis model. On the ysis model tab. They also affect where Tekla Structures creates nodes. 77) ysis model filter To use the ysis model filter to select objects to include in an ysis model. such as railings. open the ysis Model Properties dialog box. The ysis model filter works in similar way to the selection filter (see Filtering objects using a selection filter). 90). So you can go back and check the criteria you used to select objects. or to remove them. See also ysis model filter (p. To define member axis locations for all members in an ysis model. but Tekla Structures saves the settings with the ysis model properties. see Checking objects contained in an ysis model (p. open the properties dialog box. you can define how to connect members. see Showing ysis models and support conditions in model views (p. In order to force the members to meet in the ysis model. See Support conditions (p. Open the ysis Model Properties dialog box. 74) Member end connectivity You can choose to define the support conditions of individual ysis members according to the part’s properties. See Member axis location (p. ysis model properties (p. If you select either of the Reference axis options. Select No in the Member end release method by connection list box to have Tekla Structures use the support conditions of individual parts. select Yes in the Member end release method by connection list box. 17). Node definition method If Tekla Structures cannot merge nodes because they are outside the merge distance (XS_AD_NODE_COLLISION_CHECK_DISTANCE). select Yes in the Use ysis restraints list box. 90). 22). Tekla Structures may need to use the methods described in A closer look at the ysis model (p.Option Reference axis (eccentricity by neutral axis) Model default Description The part reference line is the member axis for all parts. Tekla Structures creates nodes at part reference points. or the support conditions of connections between parts. Tekla Structures takes the part location and end offsets into account when it creates nodes. See ysis properties of components (p. For each connection or detail. On the ysis model tab. 25). 74) Showing ysis models and support conditions in model views (p. See also To visually check the ysis model before running the ysis. If you select the Neutral axis option. On the ysis tab. 90) Defining nodes If physical parts collide. 2. select one of the following options in the Node definition list box: 78 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design . On the ysis model tab. Open the ysis Model Properties dialog box for an ysis model. 37). The location of the neutral axis defines axis eccentricity. The member axis of each part is defined individually according to the part’s properties. See End offsets. you can have Tekla Structures create common nodes for them in the ysis model by using the Extended clash check option in the ysis Model Properties dialog box. To have Tekla Structures use the support conditions of connections: 1. See also ysis model properties (p. but their member axes do not intersect. add special loads to ysis models. For more information.Option Use rigid links Image Description Creates a node at each member’s axis and connects the members using a rigid link between the nodes.0 Material = RigidlinkMaterial Density = 0.0*300. for example. you can. select Enabled in the Model merging with ysis applications list box in the ysis Model Properties dialog box. Rigid links Rigid links have the following properties in the ysis model: • • • • • • See also Profile = PL300. 35). Force to centric connection Creates a single node for the members and forces them into a centric connection by extending the member axes. see Using rigid links (p. In ysis applications that support model merging. To use model merging. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 79 . ysis model properties (p. 90). in addition to the loads created in Tekla Structures. 74) Model merging with ysis applications Updating changes You can merge ysis models with some ysis applications.30 Thermal dilatation coefficient = 0.0 Modulus of elasticity = 100*109 N/m2 Poisson’s ratio = 0. which means that existing models in ysis applications update when changes occur in Tekla Structures ysis models. With both node definition methods you can override the setting at specific places. see Showing ysis models and support conditions in model views (p. and still keep the model in the ysis application up to date.0 1/K To visually check the ysis model before running the ysis. then make changes in Tekla Structures. Member numbers are kept if the start and end node numbers stay the same. This leads to the iteration of deflection. select an option from the ysis method list box. You can create lateral seismic loads in the x and y directions according to several codes using a static equivalent approach (z is the direction of the gravity loads). open the ysis Model Properties dialog box. ysis method To define the ysis method for the model. Iteration The accuracy of the second order ysis depends on the number of iterations. Increasing the number of iterations also increases processing time and ysis model size. You can also set the accuracy.Keeping node and member numbers With all ysis applications. Uniform Building Code 1997 Uniform Building Code 1994 International Building Code 2000 Indian Standard. 74) Seismic ysis Type To define which building code to use to generate seismic loads. the longer the iteration goes on. Tekla Structures takes into account the additional stresses induced by the deflections of the structure. On the ysis tab. Iteration stops when the ysis reaches the accuracy or the maximum number of iterations you define on the ysis tab. the more accurate the ysis. model merging helps in keeping the node and member numbers unchanged when changes occur in the ysis model. Old numbers are not re-used. Non-linear ysis method If you select P-delta. enter a value in the Maximum number of iterations field. A simplified second order ysis method. Resetting models To renumber nodes and members. use the Seismic tab in the ysis Model Properties dialog box. • • • Node numbers are kept if the node coordinates stay the same. Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures International Building Code 2003 80 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design . or to remove a Tekla Structures ysis model from an ysis application. See also ysis model properties (p. click the Reset button next the Model merging with ysis applications list box in the ysis Model Properties dialog box. This method gives accurate results when deflections are small. To limit the number of iterations in second order ysis. The options are: Option 1st order P-delta Non-linear Description Linear ysis method. which is the relative tolerance used to control the iteration of deflection. Select one of the following options in the Type list box: Option None UBC 1997 UBC 1994 IBC 2000 IS 1893-2002 IBC 2003 Description Seismic ysis not run. define the following properties: 2. To include the self-weight of parts in the seismic ysis. The maximum natural resonant frequency of the structure. 74) Modal ysis To use modal ysis properties (resonant frequency and the associated pattern of structural deformation called mode shapes) instead of static load combinations: 1. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 81 . click the Copy modal ysis masses button. SD1. See also ysis model properties (p. On the ysis model tab. This forces Tekla Structures to ignore static load combinations. you can define some or all of the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Seismic loads Whether to calculate the accidental torsion Seismic zone coefficient (Zone) Importance factor Numerical coefficients Rw for the lateral loads in x and y directions Soil profile type Soil factor Site class SDS. select the Modal ysis model checkbox.Option AIJ Response spectrum Properties Description Japanese code Response spectrum specification Depending on the code you select. On the Modal ysis tab. To use the same load groups from the modal ysis in the seismic ysis. select a load group and use the arrow buttons between the lists. To move load groups between the Selected load groups and Not selected load groups lists. Property Count of modes Max frequency Description The number of natural mode shapes in the structure. S1 Near source factors NA and NV CT value to calculate time period Periods of structure (in seconds) in the x and y directions Response reduction factor Type of structure Damping ratio Depth of foundation below ground level Use the Seismic masses tab in the ysis Model Properties dialog box to define the load groups and load group factors to include in the seismic ysis. Open the ysis Model Properties dialog box. select the Include self-weight as seismic mass checkbox. Tekla Structures checks whether the structures fulfill the criteria in the design code (i. ysis model properties (p. The design options available vary depending on the material. 74) Contents of STAAD. See also ysis model properties (p. For each load group. To move load groups between the Selected load groups and Not selected load groups lists. The design code options available vary depending on the ysis application you use. enter a load factor and set the mass direction. the options are: • • See also XYZ to include the load in all three directions. use the Design tab in the appropriate part properties dialog box. Material Steel Concrete Timber Steel Timber Concrete Check design Calculate required area Design properties When you select a design code and method for a material. Model default to include the load only in the direction of the load.Pro is the ysis application you use. Click on an entry in the Value column to change the value of a particular property.Pro results files and reports If STAAD. select a load group and use the arrow buttons between the lists. whether cross sections are adequate). 27). 4. Copy seismic masses 3. Tekla Structures lists the design properties in the lower part of the Design tab in the ysis Model Properties dialog box. and displacements. forces. Select to include the same load groups in the modal ysis as in the seismic ysis. 74) Design codes and methods Use the Design tabs in the ysis Model Properties dialog box to define the code and method to use in structural design. Use the Output tab to define the contents of the ysis results files.e. To change the design properties of specific parts. The design method options of different materials are: Option None Description Tekla Structures only runs a structural ysis and creates data on stresses. you can define the contents of the ysis results files and reports in the ysis Model Properties dialog box in Tekla Structures.Property Include self-weight Description Select checkboxes to indicate the directions for which Tekla Structures includes the self-weight of parts in the modal ysis. 82 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design . See Design information (p. Tekla Structures defines the required area of reinforcement. Engineer and Checker names appear in the report header and in the Job information field. The properties you can include in reports are: Property Name Client Number Part Reference Comment Engineer Checker Approved Field in STAAD. Load combination rules are specific to a design process and are defined in building codes. Client.Pro reports Job title. 88) Load combination properties Load combination properties define how Tekla Structures combines loads. 88) Manual load combination (p. See also Running ysis (p.Use the Job tab to define the contents of the STAAD. 39) Load combination factors (p. appears in the Job information field. 84) Load combination types (p. Part. Comments field in Job information item in the report. 84) TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 83 . 93) 3. One of the most typical design processes is the limit state design. Acceptor name. You can have Tekla Structures automatically create load combinations. 83) Load combination factors (p. 87) Automatically including loads in combinations (p. Topics Load combination properties (p. 84) Load combination types (p.3 Load combination Introduction Load combination is a process in which some simultaneously acting load groups are multiplied by their partial safety factors and combined with each other according to specific rules.Pro reports. and Reference fields in the report header (displayed on each page). 84) Creating load combinations (p. Job Number. 86) Automatic load combination (p. or you can create and modify them manually. The following properties control the load combination process: • • • Load modeling code (p. The result of the load combination process is a load combination. On the Current code tab. select an option from the Load modeling code list box. Each load combination has an ID. All partial safety factors equal 1. ψ2). See also Creating load combinations (p. If you have to. British.. See Load modeling code (p. save the properties using a new name.00. They are: • • • • Reduction factors Unfavorable partial safety factor in the ultimate limit state (γsup) Favorable partial safety factor in the ultimate limit state (γinf) Unfavorable partial safety factor in the serviceability limit state (γsup) Favorable partial safety factor in the serviceability limit state (γinf) Depending on the codes you use. To use building-code specific factors. AISC 84 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design .• Name and ID Load group compatibility (p. 86) Load combination factors You can use values for load combination factors that are building-code specific or user-defined. If you change any values on the code-specific tabs. The options are: Combination type Load groups (LG) Description Each load group forms a load combination. the Eurocode contains three reduction factors (ψ0.. which vary according to the building code you use. 39). 43) Each load combination must have a unique name. Use names that describe the load situation. > Load modeling. enter a name in the field next to the Save as button and click the Save as button. You should not need to change these settings during the project. For example. Reduction factors exclude the impractical effects of simultaneous loads. Creating load combinations (p. This is an incremental number. Uses the partial safety factors of the ultimate limit state when combining loads. you may need to use other combination factors. you will also need to change the load group types and check load combinations. based on order in which load combinations are created in the ysis model. Applies to All codes Ultimate limit state (ULS) Eurocode. ψ1. 86) See also Load combination types You can perform several types of load combination. Combines load groups that occur persistently and transiently. click Tools > Options > Options. Partial safety factors The partial safety factors needed in the limit state design appear on the code-specific tabs. To do this. Uses the partial safety factors of the serviceability limit state when combining loads. Uses the partial safety factors of the serviceability limit state when combining loads.Combination type Serviceability limit state – Rare (SLS RC) Description Combines load groups that occur quasi-permanently and rarely. Combines load groups that occur quasi-permanently. Applies to Eurocode Serviceability limit state – Quasi-permanent (SLS Eurocode QP) Serviceability limit state AISC (SLS) Normal loads Extreme loads Displacement loads Accidental loads Ultimate loads Ultimate accidental loads Loads for public structures Loads for public structures with drifted snow Loads for non public structures Loads for non public structures with drifted snow CM66. Combines load groups and uses factors according to the French codes CM66 or BAEL91. Combines load groups that occur quasi-permanently. Uses the partial safety factors of the serviceability limit state when combining loads. BAEL91 CM66 CM66 CM66 BAEL91 BAEL91 Combines load groups according to the US IBC code (International Building Code) IBC (US) IBC (US) IBC (US) IBC (US) TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 85 . 86 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design ... 2.. together with their ID.ACI Table 8 Description Combines load groups according to the US UBC code (Uniform Building Code) Applies to UBC (US) UBC (US) UBC (US) UBC (US) UBC (US) UBC (US) UBC (US) UBC (US) Combines load groups according to the ACI code (American Concrete Institution’s publication 318) ACI Use the Load Combination Generation dialog box to define the load combination type.Combination type Loads for public non concrete and masonry structures Loads for public non concrete and masonry structures with drifted snow Loads for non concrete and masonry structures Loads for non concrete and masonry structures with drifted snow Loads for public concrete and masonry structures Loads for public concrete and masonry structures with drifted snow Loads for concrete and masonry structures Loads for concrete and masonry structures with drifted snow ACI Table 1 . Click ysis > ysis & Design Models. type. This lists the existing load combinations. 86) Load modeling code (p. and the load groups they contain. to open the Load Combinations dialog box. name.. In the ysis & Design Models dialog box. See also Creating load combinations (p.. 88) Creating load combinations To create load combinations: 1. 39) Automatically including loads in combinations (p. select an ysis model and click Load combinations.. where you manually create load combinations. Automatic load combination To automatically create load combinations: 1. See Automatic load combination (p. > Load modeling..Use the buttons in the Load Combinations dialog box to carry out various tasks.. 88). Generate. Deletes all load combinations.. See Manual load combination (p. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 87 .. In the Load Combinations dialog box. Remove Remove all Use the Save as and Load buttons to copy load combinations between ysis models. to open the Load Combination Generation dialog box. Deletes the selected load combination. 87)... click Generate.. Automatically generates load combinations based on the code and factors in Tools > Options > Options. The buttons are: Button New. Description Displays the Load Combination Coefficients dialog box. select the appropriate checkboxes in the lower part of the dialog box. select the appropriate checkboxes in the Load Combination Generation dialog box. The options are: Checkbox Include self-weight Description Automatically includes the selfweight of parts in load combinations.2. Tekla Structures creates the load combinations for different load groups and limit states according to the load modeling code you select. select the checkboxes against the combinations you want to create. select this checkbox to include wind loads from the opposite direction (-x or -y). Automatically including loads in combinations You can automatically include various loads in load combinations. > Load modeling. If the ysis model has wind loads from a specific direction (x or y). See Load combination types (p. This means that you do not have to model selfweight loads separately. See Automatically including loads in combinations (p. and uses the combination factors defined in Tools > Options > Options. 88).. use the Seismic and Seismic masses tabs in the ysis Model Properties dialog box. 42). or y and -y). See also Creating load combinations (p. 84) Manual load combination To create load combinations manually: 88 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design . 39) Load combination types (p.. 86) and Manual load combination (p. If the ysis model has imperfection loads. To do this. Click Apply or OK. See also Creating load combinations (p. See Automatic loads and load groups (p. 84). In the upper part of the dialog box. 3. See also Seismic ysis (p. To automatically include the self-weight of parts or wind loads from the opposite direction. 88). Tekla Structures automatically creates load combinations with both the positive and negative directions (x and -x. 4. Applies to All codes Generate wind also in opposite direction All codes To automatically include seismic loads in load combinations. 80). 86) Load modeling code (p.1. 87).. Modify the combination factors in the Combinations table by clicking a value. 86) and Automatic load combination (p. Topics Checking objects contained in an ysis model (p. Use the arrow buttons to move load groups between the Loads available list and the Combinations table. 90) ysis model status (p.4 Working with ysis and design models This section explains how to examine and modify ysis models. 84). 2. 90) Adding or removing ysis objects (p.. and use the ysis & Design Models dialog box. 3. 5. See also Creating load combinations (p. See Load combination types (p. 90) Showing ysis models and support conditions in model views (p. click New. 6.. Click ysis > ysis & Design Models.. 4. Select a combination type. to open the Load Combination Coefficients dialog box. In the Load Combinations dialog box. Click Apply or OK. 93) TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 89 . Enter a unique name for the load combination. Try to make the name as descriptive as possible. 3. 3. To remove the objects from the ysis model. select the parts and loads to add or remove. 100).. See also Click ysis > ysis & Design Models. rigid links. click Add selected objects (p.. 2. To have Tekla Structures show an ysis model in a Tekla Structures model view: 1. Click ysis > ysis & Design Models. Showing ysis models and support conditions in model views (p. before actually running the ysis and using the ysis application. 2. 3. and support conditions using the following colors and symbols: 90 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design .. 4. 94) See also Creating load combinations (p. Tekla Structures creates the ysis model. Tekla Structures highlights and selects the parts and loads in the physical model. Tekla Structures shows the ysis members and their identification numbers.. Adding and removing objects changes the ysis model status to out of date.Running ysis (p. and make corrections if needed. In the physical model. 90) Adding or removing ysis objects As well as changing the properties of an ysis model. To add or remove parts and loads: 1. click Remove selected objects (p. (p. Click the Show in model button. In the ysis & Design Models dialog box. select a model. 95) Checking objects contained in an ysis model To check which parts and loads an ysis model contains: 1.. 99). If the ysis is not yet run. In the ysis & Design Models dialog box.. when the ysis may take some time. Showing ysis models and support conditions in model views You can visually check ysis models in Tekla Structures.. 86) ysis > ysis & Design Models. See also ysis model status (p.. 2. 5. you can also modify existing ysis models by adding and removing objects. Click the Select objects button. so you must run the ysis again. 93). 93) Viewing ysis results (p. 4. click the Create model button.. In the ysis & Design Models dialog box. This is particularly useful with large models. nodes. select a model. select a model... 3. To add the objects to the ysis model. Click ysis > ysis & Design Models. slab. or panel edge Gray Light blue TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 91 .Object Node Rigid link Normal member (Beam) Color Magenta Dark blue Red Image Truss member Truss member – Tension only Truss member – Compression only Green Violet Yellow Composite beam Plate. clear the Parts checkboxes. button. Double-click the model view. click the Display. 4. On the Settings tab of the Display dialog box.. 2. Click Modify. right-click the view and select Redraw View from the pop-up menu. 3.. > ysis & Design: • • • • XS_AD_MEMBER_TYPE_VISUALIZATION XS_AD_MEMBER_NUMBER_VISUALIZATION XS_AD_NODE_NUMBER_VISUALIZATION XS_AD_SUPPORT_VISUALIZATION 92 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design .Connected Supported To hide the model parts and view only the wire frame ysis model: 1.. In the View Properties dialog box.. set the following variables to FALSE in Tools > Options > Advanced options. To hide the ysis model from the model view. To show all member types and to permanently hide member or node numbers or support conditions from model views. This can be: • • • • 1. Click ysis > ysis & Design Models. Up to date Not up to date Status unknown None Not up to date means that the model has changed... 90) ysis model status The Results field in the ysis & Design Models dialog box shows the status of the ysis model. In the ysis & Design Models dialog box. Running ysis To run structural ysis on an ysis model: 1. To find out more: Click ysis > ysis & Design models. This displays the status of the following: • • • • • • Calculation Load combinations ysis model properties Parts Loads Load groups The Parts. 3.. select a model. Click Run. Click Details.. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 93 . select an ysis model. and Load groups tabs display information about individual objects based on their ID number. to open the Details of ysis model status dialog box... 3. Loads. See also Checking objects contained in an ysis model (p. In the ysis & Design Models dialog box.. 2.ysis members will appear in red. 2...The ysis application starts and opens the ysis model. 2. 5. (p.. you can view the results. Use the commands on the ysis menu to work with ysis and design models.. 6. To do this: 1. click View > Representation > Object Representation. In the ysis & Design Models dialog box. 3. The following table lists the ysis and design commands and gives a short description of each one. 8.. add the AD$$UtilityRatio template field in the report template you use.. Click ysis > ysis & Design Models. you can have Tekla Structures use different colors to show the utilization ratio of steel parts in the physical model. For information on ysis results. In the Color column. Tekla Structures shows the utilization ratio of the steel parts in the selected ysis model using the following colors: To show the utilization ratio of steel parts in a report. 4. Viewing ysis results Once you have run the ysis. select the object group whose utilization ratios you want to show. Run the ysis. 95) So that you can perform a visual check. 94 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design ... select an ysis model.. set the ranges of ratio for each of the colors that Tekla Structures uses to show safe and unsafe parts. see the following topics: • • Get results (p. 7. Some ysis applications automatically run the ysis. Click OK. select Color by ysis utility check.. In the Object Representation dialog box. In the Utility Ratio Ranges dialog box. In the Model Editor. 3. 101) ysis > ysis & Design Models.5 ysis and design reference This section consists of the reference pages for the ysis and design commands...Command ysis > ysis & Design Models. Resets the selected parts to the default ysis model geometry settings. (p. Synopsis Description This command displays the ysis & Design Models dialog box so that you can work with the ysis and design models. define.. 70). Reset Geometry for Selected Parts (p. 70).. modify. 102) ysis > ysis & Design Models. View ysis Parts (p. See also ysis model geometry (p. 67). 12) TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 95 ... See also Defining ysis connections of parts (p. 74) ysis application (p. User-definable. Displays the ysis Member Connectivity dialog box of a selected parts so that you can view. Shows the ysis parts superimposed on the physical parts in all model views. Displays the ysis Geometry Settings dialog box where you can define the automatic settings of ysis model geometry. Disconnects the selected parts in the ysis.. and modify the ysis connections of the part. See also Connecting or disconnecting parts in ysis (p. The ysis application or format used in the ysis of the ysis model. The properties in the dialog box are: Column ysis model name ysis application Description A unique name for the ysis model. 95) Icon Description Displays the ysis & Design models dialog box so that you can work with ysis and design models. run.. 102) Geometry Settings. add. All manual adjustments in geometry are removed. update. 71). See also Connecting or disconnecting parts in ysis (p. The ysis & Design Models dialog box lists all existing ysis and design models.. More information ysis model properties (p. Use this dialog box to view. Connects the selected parts in the ysis.. and delete ysis and design models. Connect Parts Disconnect Parts Edit Part Connectivity. 100). 90). See Showing ysis models and support conditions in model views (p. Displays the properties of the selected ysis model. or ysis properties of parts. Highlights and selects the parts and loads that are included in the ysis model in the physical model. Description Displays the ysis Model Properties dialog box so that you can create new ysis models. Removes the parts and loads that are selected in the physical model from the selected ysis model. See Add selected objects (p. The number of physical parts included in the ysis model. 93) Members. 13) When you create an ysis model using the Full model option. 76) ysis model status (p.. and nodes (p. (p. 90). Shows the ysis members and their identification numbers. See Remove selected objects (p. 74). 97). See New. rigid links. 100). Also use to create new load combinations.. Same as Show in model but first updates the ysis model with changes in the physical model. See ysis model properties (p..Column Creation method Results Number of parts Description Defines which objects are included in the ysis model. See Load combinations. (p.. Select objects Add selected objects Remove selected objects Show in model Update and show Load combinations... Adds the parts and loads that are selected in the physical model to the selected ysis model. ysis model geometry... nodes.. and support conditions of the selected ysis model in the active Tekla Structures model view. the number of objects in the ysis & Design Models dialog box changes only when you update the ysis model. Updates the information on the ysis model list. Usage The following table explains the functions of the buttons in the ysis & Design Models dialog box: Button New. 99). elements. Refresh 96 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design . See also Checking objects contained in an ysis model (p. Delete Properties.. Indicates whether the ysis model is up to date or not. More information Objects in an ysis model (p. Deletes the selected ysis model. Displays the load combinations in the selected ysis model. 99) and Remove selected objects (p. Whichever creation method you choose. Starts the ysis application and opens the selected ysis model in it.. See Get results (p. Description To automatically include all the objects in the physical and load models in the ysis model. 89) New. Use to exit the ysis application. Run Create model Description Displays detailed information about the status of the ysis model. 90). and bending moment at the part ends as user-defined attributes in the part properties. Saves the maximum axial force. but does not run the ysis. Open application Close application Get results Get results for selected Close See also Working with ysis and design models (p. See Add selected objects (p. See ysis model status (p. Same as Get results but only saves results for the selected parts. open a part’s user-defined attributes dialog box. select the objects to include in the model. you can use the Filter list box to specify which objects to include in the ysis model. Create the physical and load models. Tekla Structures creates the ysis model using the properties in the ysis Model Properties dialog box. Constructs an ysis model. To create an ysis model for specific parts and loads. 100). You can also later add and remove ysis objects. 101). use the Full model creation option. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 97 .. shear force. Closes the ysis & Design Models dialog box.Button Details. or fit the work area to include them. Synopsis Preconditions This command displays the ysis Model Properties dialog box and creates a new ysis model. To view these results. Use with the Show in model button when visually checking the ysis model. See also Filtering objects. Define the support conditions for parts and connections. Runs the ysis on the selected ysis model. See also Showing ysis models and support conditions in model views (p.. 93).. More information ysis application (p. 78) ysis method (p. Defines which objects are included in the ysis model. 38) Model merging with ysis applications (p. Defines whether second order stresses are taken into consideration. Defines how the nodes and node positions are defined. When changes occur in the ysis model. The model in the ysis application is updated.Pro results files and reports (p. To use the same application or format by default for other new ysis models. 77) Defining nodes (p. 12) ysis model name Modal ysis model A unique name for the ysis model. Defines whether modal ysis properties are used instead of static load combinations. ysis model properties (p. 79) checkbox Model merging with ysis application • • The node and member numbers are kept unchanged. defines whether: Member axis (p. 80) Contents of STAAD. Toggles extended clash checking on and off.Field/Tab ysis application Description The ysis application or format used in the ysis of the ysis model. User-definable. 78) Nodes connecting members and elements (p. Tekla Structures repeats second order iteration until it reaches one of these values. Member end release method by connection ysis method Maximum iterations Accuracy Job Output Defines whether the support conditions of connections or parts are used. 81) Objects in an ysis model (p. 82) 98 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design . Defines the contents of the ysis results file. select the Set as the default checkbox. 76) ysis model filter (p. Defines the job information in reports. 77) checkbox Creation method Member axis location Node definition Extended clash check Defines which line is used as the axis of each ysis member. Member end connectivity (p. 74) Modal ysis (p. 95) Working with ysis and design models (p. In the Creation method list box. Create an ysis model. 82) tab Design code Design method Usage Click ysis > ysis & Design Model.. Enter or modify the remaining ysis model properties. 4. Click OK.. 100) Adding or removing ysis objects (p. To create a new ysis model of the entire physical and load models: 1.Field/Tab Seismic tab Seismic masses tab Modal ysis Description Properties required by seismic ysis. 81) Design codes and methods (p. Properties required by modal ysis.. Click OK. 5. See also Select the objects you want to include in the ysis model. 4. Click ysis > ysis & Design Models. 89) Add selected objects Synopsis Preconditions Description Usage This command adds parts and loads to the selected ysis model... select Full model. By selected parts and loads. 4.. or fit the work area to include them. More information Seismic ysis (p. Select the ysis model you want to add objects to... select By work area. In the Creation method list box. 3.. Enter or modify the remaining ysis model properties. The material-specific principle used to compare stresses and material capacities. (p.. Use this command when you have created ysis models using the By selected parts or By selected parts and loads method. 2. 1.. 3. 90) TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 99 . Select the objects to add. Click New. 3. 2. 80) Modal ysis (p. 2. Click New. By selected parts. ysis > ysis & Design Models. or Floor model by selected parts and loads. Click Add selected objects... See also Remove selected objects (p. to open the ysis & Design Models dialog box. Design codes for different materials. To create a new ysis model for specific parts and loads: 1. Set the code to follow in load combination in Tools > Options > Options. select an ysis model and click Load combinations.. 6. 3.. Create an ysis model. Description Usage To create load combinations: 1. Synopsis Preconditions This command opens the Load Combinations dialog box so that you can work with load combinations. Select the checkboxes against the combinations you want to create...... 2.. to open the Load Combination Generation dialog box. Click ysis > ysis & Design Models. Select the ysis model you want to remove objects from. Click Remove selected objects. Create an ysis model. Select the objects to remove. 90) Load combinations. 100 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design . 2. 3. 99) Adding or removing ysis objects (p. See Load combination types (p.. 84). Use this command when you have created ysis models using the By selected parts or By selected parts and loads method. 4.. select the appropriate checkboxes. click Generate. See Automatically including loads in combinations (p. 4.Remove selected objects Synopsis Preconditions Description Usage This command removes parts and loads from the selected ysis model.. 1. In the ysis & Design Models dialog box. > Load modeling > Current code. To automatically include the self-weight of parts or wind loads from the opposite direction.. Tekla Structures creates the load combinations based on the selected building code.. 88). 5. Click ysis > ysis & Design Models. In the Load Combinations dialog box. See also Add selected objects (p... Click Apply or OK. 88).. set XS_AD_RESULT_DATABASE_ENABLED to FALSE in Tools > Options > Advanced Options. Usage To save the results of an ysis model as user-defined attributes: 1. 2...db5. 2. Select the ysis model.. See also Creating load combinations (p. in the current model folder.. Get results for selected To view the results. If you do not want to create the ysis results database. 3. > ysis & Design to define the ysis member points whose results are saved in the database: • • • • Description XS_AD_MEMBER_RESULT_DIVISION_COUNT XS_AD_MEMBER_RESULT_DISP_DIVISION_COUNT XS_AD_MEMBER_RESULT_MIN_DISTANCE XS_AD_MEMBER_RESULT_GRID_SIZE Run the ysis.. and bending moment at the part ends as user-defined attributes in the part properties. 4. Click Get results for selected. shear force. Preconditions Use the following variables in Tools > Options > Advanced Options. Command Get results Icon Description Saves the results for each part in the selected ysis model.. button in the Load Combinations dialog box. See Manual load combination (p. open the user-defined attributes dialog box for the part. Click Get results. > ysis & Design.NET or Excel design interface. To access the ysis results database. Select the parts in the physical model... To save the ysis results of specific parts in an ysis model as user-defined attributes: 1. click the New. 3. 86) Load combination (p.. ysis_results. 83) Get results Synopsis The Get results and Get results for selected commands save the maximum axial force.. use the . When you click Get results or Get results for selected and then save the model.. TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design 101 . Select the ysis model. Click ysis > ysis & Design Models. Tekla Structures saves the ysis results of all load combinations in a database.To create your own load combinations and use combination factors that are not code-specific. Saves the results for the parts that you select in the physical model. Click ysis > ysis & Design Models. Click ysis > Edit Geometry > Reset Geometry for Selected Parts. 2. 72) Reset Geometry for Selected Parts Synopsis Preconditions Usage Resets the selected parts to the default ysis model geometry settings. Select the parts to reset. 70) 102 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ysis and Design . A check mark next to View ysis Parts on the ysis menu indicates that the ysis parts are already visible. or disconnecting ysis parts. To switch View ysis Parts on or off. connecting.See also Viewing ysis results (p. Use this command if you have modified ysis model geometry by moving. 94) View ysis Parts Synopsis Usage Shows the ysis parts superimposed on the physical parts in all model views. All manual adjustments in geometry are removed. See also ysis part properties (p. click ysis > View ysis Parts. See also Modifying ysis model geometry (p. 1.......... 18 ysis members properties ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 68 ysis models............................................................................................................................................................................. 37 applying loads to parts ............. 70 objects........ 72 viewing ......29 c color by ysis type ..........................................................................................................27 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 103 .................56 d defining load groups........................................................................................................................ 50 area load ....................................................................................................................................................Index a adding nodes.............................42 in load combinations.......................................................... 90 checking objects................................................... 93 seismic loads................. 70.....................................................................................................14..... 50 automatic loads .................26 degree of freedom ..........................88 seismic loads..................... 102 running ysis .............................................................. 11 a closer look ......23 composite beam .............. 102 ysis model geometry rules......................................................83 common nodes ...........16 color by ysis utilization check.... 74..63 b bounding box .............................. 71 creating ysis models.......38 compatibility of load groups ...................................................... 79 ysis member offsets......................................44 design codes and methods..... 28 ysis method .............................................................................................. 68 defining geometry.........................................................................................22 slabs in ysis ......82 design information ...................44 nodes........................ 97 creating geometry rules..................................... 67 prior to ............................................... 80 ysis model geometry........................................................... 37.. 70 resetting ...... 74 resetting geometry .................................. 94 ysis parts properties ..................................... 67 filtering objects ............................... 76 properties .......................................................................................................................................... 60 attaching loads to parts..... 78 support conditions ..............................................84 combining loads........................................................................................................................................................................................................................42 wind load .................... 93 viewing results.................................86 loads.......94 combination factors ................................................................50 buckling length....................................................................................43 components in ysis...............................................74........................................ 90 creating ..................................................................................................................................................................80 self-weight ............................. 67 modifying.................................. 90 modifying geometry.................................................................................................... 77 modifying..................................... 80 status...................................................40................................................................................................................................... 97 load combinations ............................................................. 11 merging models...............................................74........... 34 ysis and design overview ................24 connecting parts in ysis .. 37 adding or removing objects ................................................... 13 ysis and design models .................................................25 deleting load groups.......................................................... 95 ysis application ......... 102 ysis settings .........................44 modifying ...........28 intermediate nodes ......................... 41...................................79 properties................78 member end release method ..............................................46 loads .............................................83 automatic ................................................................................................68 geometry settings of ysis models.............42 in ysis ...53 properties............49 DOF see degree of freedom ......................................56 distribution ....................43 load model ........................... 84 manual ..........88 properties..............................................................................................................................................................39 load panel .......................................................................... 14.......................................................50 automatic ............................................................................................................................52 magnitude ..................................67 h handles of loads ...................43 defining ...............................16 member axis of all parts in ysis model.......................13 f filter in ysis models ..................77 of individual parts........................................................50 combining .............77 g geometry rules of ysis models .......25 e effective buckling length ...................... 56 applying ........................................disconnecting parts in ysis .............................................................................................................................................49 modifying ......86 factors .......................................................................................................................... 39........................................................41.........................48 load groups .....................................................................13 keeping numbers .......42 compatibility ..... 41 load modeling code.............................80 types ................................................................................................................29 elements ..........................................................................................77 filtering ysis model objects ..........................................................................................................................80 load combination....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................42 bounding box ............................................... 42...........................................................59 104 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 ............................................44 properties.....................50 attaching .......................................................................................................... 70......................................................................................................................39 load types...........54 seismic............................... 28 l line load ................................................................................................................ 56 automatic .........................................................................................................................................................................................18 k Kmode ...........................39 creating combinations......................87 code .......63 longitudinal member offset......49 forms.......... 11.......................78 members ................................................................83 creating .......45 scaling in model views ...........................................84 load forms ................ 71 distributing loads..............................................................46 wind load generator ........................................................34 iteration .........................................................................48 grouping..................29 m member ysis type ....................................................83 types .........................................................54 i intermediate ysis members ...........................................................................................................................................................................17 member end connectivity ...........................44 deleting ................80 seismic loads .................... 79 safety factors .............................................................................. 70 ysis models...... 62 u uniform load.................................................................................61 user-defined attributes............... 78 keeping numbers...................................74......................................................................................................................................... 49...........................20 split nodes ............. 34 defining........... 55...............................merging models with ysis applications ................................................84 scaling loads in model views ................................................ 18 point load................ 90 load groups ...................26 p partial safety factors ......................................................................................................................................................................................80 self-weight ................. 84 rigid links .....................................................................34 strain.................................................................................................................................................................. 84 parts ysis properties ................................................52 of plates....42 slabs components in ysis .. 72 physical model..................................................................23 spanning of loads.............................................................................................................. 38 adding ............................ 11 plates in ysis .................................. 79 modal ysis................................................................ 78 running ysis ................................ 63 TEKLA STRUCTURES 15 105 ......................................13.........................35..........................31 utilization ratio................................................................94 r reduction factors.....................54 seismic ysis............................ 58 t temperature load ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 44 loads.......................37............................. 81 modifying ysis model geometry ........................................ 93 v viewing ysis parts .......................102 s w wind load generator ................................ 49....................................................................25 defining.............. 62 support conditions ................................ 53 n nodes...........This action might not be possible to undo. 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